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Afghanistanmixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law
Akrotirilaws applicable to the Cypriot population are, as far as possible, the same as the laws of the Republic of Cyprus; note - the Sovereign Base Area Administration has its own court system to deal with civil and criminal matters
Albania"civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the ""Code of Leke"" prevails
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Algeriamixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices
American Samoamixed legal system of US common law and customary law
Andorramixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon law
Angolacivil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Anguillacommon law based on the English model
AntarcticaAntarctica is administered through annual meetings - known as Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings - which include consultative member nations, non-consultative member nations, observer organizations, and expert organizations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; more generally, access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90 degrees south latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party to the Antarctic Treaty; note - US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply to Antarctica; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica; violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and one year in prison; the National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit its website at www.nsf.gov
Antigua and Barbudacommon law based on the English model
Argentinacivil law system based on West European legal systems; note - in mid-2015, Argentina adopted a new civil code, replacing the old one in force since 1871
Armeniacivil law system
Arubacivil law system based on the Dutch civil code
Ashmore and Cartier Islandsthe laws of the Commonwealth of Australia and the laws of the Northern Territory of Australia, where applicable, apply
Australiacommon law system based on the English model
Austriacivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
Azerbaijancivil law system
Bahamas, Thecommon law system based on the English model
Bahrainmixed legal system of Islamic law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law
Bangladeshmixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
BarbadosEnglish common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
Belaruscivil law system; note - nearly all major codes (civil, civil procedure, criminal, criminal procedure, family, and labor) were revised and came into force in 1999 and 2000
Belgiumcivil law system based on the French Civil Code; note - Belgian law continues to be modified in conformance with the legislative norms mandated by the European Union; judicial review of legislative acts
BelizeEnglish common law
Benincivil law system modeled largely on the French system and some customary law
BermudaEnglish common law
Bhutancivil law based on Buddhist religious law
Boliviacivil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Bosnia and Herzegovinacivil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Botswanamixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
Bouvet Islandthe laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Brazilcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
British Indian Ocean Territorythe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
British Virgin IslandsEnglish common law
Bruneimixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; note - in May 2014, the first of three phases of sharia-based penal codes was instituted, which applies to Muslims and non-Muslims and exists in parallel to the existing common law-based code
Bulgariacivil law
Burkina Fasocivil law based on the French model and customary law
Burmamixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law
Burundimixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
Cambodiacivil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law
Cameroonmixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Canadacommon law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails
Cape Verdecivil law system of Portugal
Cayman IslandsEnglish common law and local statutes
Central African Republiccivil law system based on the French model
Chadmixed legal system of civil and customary law
Chilecivil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal
Chinacivil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - in early 2017, the National People's Congress took the first step in adopting a new civil code by passing the General Provisions of the Civil Law
Christmas Islandlegal system is under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law
Clipperton Islandthe laws of France apply
Cocos (Keeling) Islandscommon law based on the Australian model
Colombiacivil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Comorosmixed legal system of Islamic religious law, the French civil code of 1975, and customary law
Congo, Democratic Republic of thecivil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary, and tribal law
Congo, Republic of themixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
Cook Islandscommon law similar to New Zealand common law
Coral Sea Islandsthe common law legal system of Australia, where applicable, applies
Costa Ricacivil law system based on Spanish civil code; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Cote d'Ivoirecivil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
Croatiacivil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
Cubacivil law system based on Spanish civil code
Curacaobased on Dutch civil law system with some English common law influence
Cyprusmixed legal system of English common law and civil law with European law supremacy
Czech Republicnew civil code enacted in 2014, replacing civil code of 1964 - based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory - and reintroducing former Czech legal terminology
Denmarkcivil law; judicial review of legislative acts
Dhekelialaws applicable to the Cypriot population are, as far as possible, the same as the laws of the Republic of Cyprus; note - the Sovereign Base Area Administration has its own court system to deal with civil and criminal matters
Djiboutimixed legal system based primarily on the French civil code (as it existed in 1997), Islamic religious law (in matters of family law and successions), and customary law
Dominicacommon law based on the English model
Dominican Republiccivil law system based on the French civil code; Criminal Procedures Code modified in 2004 to include important elements of an accusatory system
East Timorcivil law system based on the Portuguese model; note - penal and civil law codes to replace the Indonesian codes were passed by Parliament and promulgated in 2009 and 2011, respectively
Ecuadorcivil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities
Egyptmixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
El Salvadorcivil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Equatorial Guineamixed system of civil and customary law
Eritreamixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic religious law
Estoniacivil law system
Ethiopiacivil law system
European Union"unique supranational law system in which, according to an interpretive declaration of member-state governments appended to the Treaty of Lisbon, ""the Treaties and the law adopted by the Union on the basis of the Treaties have primacy over the law of Member States"" under conditions laid down in the case law of the Court of Justice; key principles of EU law include fundamental rights as guaranteed by the Charter of Fundamental Rights and as resulting from constitutional traditions common to the EU's 28-member states; EU law is divided into 'primary' and 'secondary' legislation; primary legislation is derived from the consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and are the basis for all EU action; secondary legislation - which includes directives, regulations, and decisions - is derived from the principles and objectives set out in the treaties
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Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)English common law and local statutes
Faroe Islandsthe laws of Denmark, where applicable, apply
Fijicommon law system based on the English model
Finlandcivil law system based on the Swedish model
Francecivil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts
French Polynesiathe laws of France, where applicable, apply
French Southern and Antarctic Landsthe laws of France, where applicable, apply
Gabonmixed legal system of French civil law and customary law
Gambia, Themixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law
Georgiacivil law system
Germanycivil law system
Ghanamixed system of English common law and customary law
Gibraltarthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Greececivil legal system based on Roman law
Greenlandthe laws of Denmark apply where applicable and Greenlandic law applies to other areas
Grenadacommon law based on English model
Guamcommon law modeled on US system; US federal laws apply
Guatemalacivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Guernseycustomary legal system based on Norman customary law, and includes elements of the French civil code and English common law
Guineacivil law system based on the French model
Guinea-Bissaumixed legal system of civil law, which incorporated Portuguese law at independence and influenced by early French civil code and customary law
Guyanacommon law system, based on the English model, with some Roman-Dutch civil law influence
Haiticivil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code
Heard Island and McDonald Islandsthe laws of Australia, where applicable, apply
Holy See (Vatican City)religious legal system based on canon (religious) law
Hondurascivil law system
Hong Kongmixed legal system of common law based on the English model and Chinese customary law (in matters of family and land tenure)
Howland Islandthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Hungarycivil legal system influenced by the German model
Icelandcivil law system influenced by the Danish model
Indiacommon law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Indonesiacivil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Iranreligious legal system based on secular and Islamic law
Iraqmixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
Irelandcommon law system based on the English model but substantially modified by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts by Supreme Court
Isle of Manthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply and include Manx statutes
Israelmixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws
Italycivil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
Jamaicacommon law system based on the English model
Jan Mayenthe laws of Norway, where applicable, apply
Japancivil law system based on German model; system also reflects Anglo-American influence and Japanese traditions; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Jarvis Islandthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Jerseythe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply; local statutes
Johnston Atollthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Jordanmixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law
Kazakhstancivil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation
Kenyamixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
Kingman Reefthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
KiribatiEnglish common law supplemented by customary law
Korea, Northcivil law system based on the Prussian model; system influenced by Japanese traditions and Communist legal theory
Korea, Southmixed legal system combining European civil law, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought
Kosovocivil law system; note - the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) retains limited executive powers related to the investigation of such issues as war crimes
Kuwaitmixed legal system consisting of English common law, French civil law, and Islamic religious law
Kyrgyzstancivil law system, which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
Laoscivil law system similar in form to the French system
Latviacivil law system with traces of socialist legal traditions and practices
Lebanonmixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communities
Lesothomixed legal system of English common law and Roman-Dutch law; judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal
Liberiamixed legal system of common law (based on Anglo-American law) and customary law
LibyaLibya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
Liechtensteincivil law system influenced by Swiss, Austrian, and German law
Lithuaniacivil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the Constitutional Court
Luxembourgcivil law system
Macaucivil law system based on the Portuguese model
Macedoniacivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Madagascarcivil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligation
Malawimixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal
Malaysiamixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
MaldivesIslamic religious legal system with English common law influences, primarily in commercial matters
Malicivil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Constitutional Court
Maltamixed legal system of English common law and civil law based on the Roman and Napoleonic civil codes
Marshall Islandsmixed legal system of US and English common law, customary law, and local statutes
Mauritaniamixed legal system of Islamic and French civil law
Mauritiuscivil legal system based on French civil law with some elements of English common law
Mexicocivil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts
Micronesia, Federated States ofmixed legal system of common and customary law
Midway Islandsthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Moldovacivil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Monacocivil law system influenced by French legal tradition
Mongoliacivil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts
Montenegrocivil law
MontserratEnglish common law
Moroccomixed legal system of civil law based on French law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts by Constitutional Court
Mozambiquemixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
Namibiamixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law
Naurumixed legal system of common law based on the English model and customary law
Navassa Islandthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
NepalEnglish common law and Hindu legal concepts
Netherlandscivil law system based on the French system; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General
New Caledoniacivil law system based on French law; the 1988 Matignon Accords (signed in the Matignon Hotel) set up a 10-year period of development during which the Kanak community received substantial autonomy but agreed not to raise the independence issue
New Zealandcommon law system, based on English model, with special legislation and land courts for the Maori
Nicaraguacivil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
Nigermixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Nigeriamixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
NiueEnglish common law
Norfolk IslandEnglish common law and the laws of Australia
Northern Mariana IslandsUS system applies, except for customs, wages, immigration laws, and taxation
Norwaymixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
Omanmixed legal system of Anglo-Saxon law and Islamic law
Pakistancommon law system with Islamic law influence
Palaumixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
Palmyra Atollthe laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Panamacivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice
Papua New Guineamixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Paraguaycivil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice
Perucivil law system
Philippinesmixed legal system of civil, common, Islamic, and customary law
Pitcairn Islandslocal island by-laws
Polandcivil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
Portugalcivil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Puerto Ricocivil law system based on the Spanish civil code and within the framework of the US federal system
Qatarmixed legal system of civil law and Islamic law (in family and personal matters)
Romaniacivil law system
Russiacivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Rwandamixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Saint BarthelemyFrench civil law
Saint HelenaEnglish common law and local statutes
Saint Kitts and NevisEnglish common law
Saint LuciaEnglish common law
Saint MartinFrench civil law
Saint Pierre and MiquelonFrench civil law
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesEnglish common law
Samoamixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen
San Marinocivil law system with Italian civil law influences
Sao Tome and Principemixed legal system of civil law base on the Portuguese model and customary law
Saudi ArabiaIslamic (sharia) legal system with some elements of Egyptian, French, and customary law; note - several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees
Senegalcivil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Serbiacivil law system
Seychellesmixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Sierra Leonemixed legal system of English common law and customary law
SingaporeEnglish common law
Sint Maartenbased on Dutch civil law system with some English common law influence
Slovakiacivil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
Sloveniacivil law system
Solomon Islandsmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Somaliamixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
South Africamixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Spaincivil law system with regional variations
Sri Lankamixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and Jaffna Tamil customary law
Sudanmixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
Surinamecivil law system influenced by Dutch civil law; note - the Commissie Nieuw Surinaamse Burgerlijk Wetboek completed drafting a new civil code in February 2009
Svalbardthe laws of Norway where applicable apply; only the laws of Norway made explicitly applicable to Svalbard have effect there; the Svalbard Act and the Svalbard Environmental Protection Act, and certain regulations, apply only to Svalbard; the Spitsbergen Treaty and the Svalbard Treaty grant certain rights to citizens and corporations of signatory nations; as of June 2017, 45 nations had ratified the Svalbard Treaty
Swazilandmixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
Swedencivil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
Switzerlandcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts, except for federal decrees of a general obligatory character
Syriamixed legal system of civil and Islamic law (for family courts)
Taiwancivil law system
Tajikistancivil law system
TanzaniaEnglish common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
Thailandcivil law system with common law influences
Togocustomary law system
Tokelaucommon law system of New Zealand
TongaEnglish common law
Trinidad and TobagoEnglish common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Tunisiamixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
Turkeycivil law system based on various European legal systems, notably the Swiss civil code
Turkmenistancivil law system with Islamic law influences
Turks and Caicos Islandsmixed legal system of English common law and civil law
Tuvalumixed legal system of English common law and local customary law
Ugandamixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Ukrainecivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
United Arab Emiratesmixed legal system of Islamic law and civil law
United Kingdomcommon law system; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998
United Statescommon law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law except Louisiana, which is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts
Uruguaycivil law system based on the Spanish civil code
Uzbekistancivil law system
Vanuatumixed legal system of English common law, French law, and customary law
Venezuelacivil law system based on the Spanish civil code
Vietnamcivil law system; note - the civil code of 2005 reflects a European-style civil law
Virgin IslandsUS common law
Wake IslandUS common law
Wallis and FutunaFrench civil law
Worldthe legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law (including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including English and US law); customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law (including Islamic law); an additional type of legal system - international law - governs the conduct of independent nations in their relationships with one another
Yemenmixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law
Zambiamixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Zimbabwemixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law

Source: CIA Factbook