Government type

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Afghanistanpresidential Islamic republic
Albaniaparliamentary republic
Algeriapresidential republic
American Samoapresidential democracy; a self-governing territory of the US
Andorraparliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the President of France and Bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who delegate responsibility to other officials
Angolapresidential republic
Anguillaparliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
AntarcticaAntarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic region is governed by a system known as the Antarctic Treaty System; the system includes: 1. the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, which establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica, 2. Recommendations and Measures adopted at meetings of Antarctic Treaty countries, 3. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972), 4. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980), and 5. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991); the 40th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held 22 May-1 June 2017 in Beijing, China; at these annual meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; by January 2016, there were 53 treaty member nations: 29 consultative and 24 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 46 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others;
Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the years in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty and when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, NZ, Norway, and the UK; nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1975/1983), Bulgaria (1978/1998), China (1983/1985), Czech Republic (1962/2017), Ecuador (1987/1990), Finland (1984/1989), Germany (1979/1981), India (1983/1983), Italy (1981/1987), Japan, South Korea (1986/1989), Netherlands (1967/1990), Peru (1981/1989), Poland (1961/1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1982/1988), Sweden (1984/1988), Ukraine (1992/2004), Uruguay (1980/1985), and the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Belarus (2006), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), Iceland (2015), Kazakhstan (2015), North Korea (1987), Malaysia (2011), Monaco (2008), Mongolia (2015), Pakistan (2012), Papua New Guinea (1981), Portugal (2010), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1962/1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1996), and Venezuela (1999); note - Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 and separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993;
Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights;
Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations;
other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments; a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, 3) waste disposal and waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection and management and 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Antigua and Barbudaparliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Argentinapresidential republic
Armeniaparliamentary democracy
Arubaparliamentary democracy (Legislature); part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Australiaparliamentary democracy (Federal Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Austriafederal parliamentary republic
Azerbaijanpresidential republic
Bahamas, Theparliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Bahrainconstitutional monarchy
Bangladeshparliamentary republic
Barbadosparliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Belaruspresidential republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship
Belgiumfederal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Belizeparliamentary democracy (National Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Beninpresidential republic
Bermudaparliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Bhutanconstitutional monarchy
Boliviapresidential republic
Bosnia and Herzegovinaparliamentary republic
Botswanaparliamentary republic
Brazilfederal presidential republic
British Virgin Islandsparliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Bruneiabsolute monarchy or sultanate
Bulgariaparliamentary republic
Burkina Fasopresidential republic
Burmaparliamentary republic
Burundipresidential republic
Cambodiaparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Cameroonpresidential republic
Canadafederal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Cape Verdeparliamentary republic
Cayman Islandsparliamentary democracy (Legislative Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Central African Republicpresidential republic
Chadpresidential republic
Chilepresidential republic
Chinacommunist party-led state
Christmas Islandnon-self-governing overseas territory of Australia
Cocos (Keeling) Islandsnon-self-governing overseas territory of Australia
Colombiapresidential republic
Comorosfederal presidential republic
Congo, Democratic Republic of thesemi-presidential republic
Congo, Republic of thepresidential republic
Cook Islandsself-governing parliamentary democracy (Parliament of the Cook Islands) in free association with New Zealand
Costa Ricapresidential republic
Cote d'Ivoirepresidential republic
Croatiaparliamentary republic
Cubacommunist state
Curacaoparliamentary democracy
Cyprus"Republic of Cyprus - presidential democracy; Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (self-declared) - semi-presidential democracy
note: a separation of the two main ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified when a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt prompted the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government on the island; on 15 November 1983, then Turkish Cypriot ""President"" Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of a ""Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"" (""TRNC""), which is recognized only by Turkey
Czech Republicparliamentary republic
Denmarkparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Djiboutisemi-presidential republic
Dominicaparliamentary republic
Dominican Republicpresidential republic
East Timorsemi-presidential republic
Ecuadorpresidential republic
Egyptpresidential republic
El Salvadorpresidential republic
Equatorial Guineapresidential republic
Eritreapresidential republic
Estoniaparliamentary republic
Ethiopiafederal parliamentary republic
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)parliamentary democracy (Legislative Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Faroe Islandsparliamentary democracy (Faroese Parliament); part of the Kingdom of Denmark
Fijiparliamentary republic
Finlandparliamentary republic
Francesemi-presidential republic
French Polynesiaparliamentary democracy (Assembly of French Polynesia); an overseas collectivity of France
Gabonpresidential republic
Gambia, Thepresidential republic
Georgiasemi-presidential republic
Germanyfederal parliamentary republic
Ghanapresidential republic
Gibraltarparliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Greeceparliamentary republic
Greenlandparliamentary democracy (Parliament of Greenland or Inatsisartut); part of the Kingdom of Denmark
Grenadaparliamentary democracy (Parliament); a Commonwealth realm
Guampresidential democracy; a self-governing unincorporated territory of the US
Guatemalapresidential republic
Guernseyparliamentary democracy (States of Deliberation); a Crown dependency of the UK
Guineapresidential republic
Guinea-Bissausemi-presidential republic
Guyanaparliamentary republic
Haitisemi-presidential republic
Holy See (Vatican City)"ecclesiastical elective monarchy; self-described as an ""absolute monarchy""
Honduraspresidential republic
Hong Kongpresidential limited democracy; a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China
Hungaryparliamentary republic
Icelandparliamentary republic
Indiafederal parliamentary republic
Indonesiapresidential republic
Irantheocratic republic
Iraqfederal parliamentary republic
Irelandparliamentary republic
Isle of Manparliamentary democracy (Tynwald); a Crown dependency of the UK
Israelparliamentary democracy
Italyparliamentary republic
Jamaicaparliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Japanparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Jerseyparliamentary democracy (Assembly of the States of Jersey); a Crown dependency of the UK
Jordanparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Kazakhstanpresidential republic
Kenyapresidential republic
Kiribatipresidential republic
Korea, North"single-party state; official state ideology of ""Juche"" or ""national self-reliance
Korea, Southpresidential republic
Kosovoparliamentary republic
Kuwaitconstitutional monarchy
Kyrgyzstanparliamentary republic
Laoscommunist state
Latviaparliamentary republic
Lebanonparliamentary republic
Lesothoparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Liberiapresidential republic
Libyain transition
Liechtensteinconstitutional monarchy
Lithuaniasemi-presidential republic
Luxembourgconstitutional monarchy
Macaupresidential limited democracy; a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China
Macedoniaparliamentary republic
Madagascarsemi-presidential republic
Malawipresidential republic
Malaysiafederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
note: all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
Maldivespresidential republic
Malisemi-presidential republic
Maltaparliamentary republic
Marshall Islandspresidential republic in free association with the US
Mauritaniapresidential republic
Mauritiusparliamentary republic
Mexicofederal presidential republic
Micronesia, Federated States offederal republic in free association with the US
Moldovaparliamentary republic
Monacoconstitutional monarchy
Mongoliasemi-presidential republic
Montenegroparliamentary republic
Montserratparliamentary democracy (Legislative Council); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Moroccoparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Mozambiquepresidential republic
Namibiapresidential republic
Nauruparliamentary republic
Nepalfederal parliamentary republic
Netherlandsparliamentary constitutional monarchy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
New Caledoniaparliamentary democracy (Territorial Congress); an overseas collectivity of France
New Zealandparliamentary democracy (New Zealand Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Nicaraguapresidential republic
Nigersemi-presidential republic
Nigeriafederal presidential republic
Niueself-governing parliamentary democracy (Fouo Ekepule) in free association with New Zealand
Norfolk Islandnon-self-governing overseas territory of Australia; note - the Norfolk Island Regional Council, which began operations 1 July 2016, is responsible for planning and managing a variety of public services, including those funded by the Government of Australia
Northern Mariana Islandspresidential democracy; a commonwealth in political union with the US
Norwayparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Omanabsolute monarchy
Pakistanfederal parliamentary republic
Palaupresidential republic in free association with the US
Panamapresidential republic
Papua New Guineaparliamentary democracy (National Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Paraguaypresidential republic
Perupresidential republic
Philippinespresidential republic
Pitcairn Islandsparliamentary democracy (Island Council); overseas territory of the UK
Polandparliamentary republic
Portugalsemi-presidential republic
Puerto Ricopresidential democracy; a self-governing commonwealth in political association with the US
Qatarabsolute monarchy
Romaniasemi-presidential republic
Russiasemi-presidential federation
Rwandapresidential republic
Saint Helenaparliamentary democracy (Legislative Council); limited self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Saint Kitts and Nevisfederal parliamentary democracy (National Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Saint Luciaparliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Saint Pierre and Miquelonparliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesparliamentary democracy (House of Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Samoaparliamentary republic
San Marinoparliamentary republic
Sao Tome and Principesemi-presidential republic
Saudi Arabiaabsolute monarchy
Senegalpresidential republic
Serbiaparliamentary republic
Seychellespresidential republic
Sierra Leonepresidential republic
Singaporeparliamentary republic
Sint Maartenparliamentary democracy (Estates of Sint Maarten) under a constitutional monarchy
Slovakiaparliamentary republic
Sloveniaparliamentary republic
Solomon Islandsparliamentary democracy (National Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Somaliafederal parliamentary republic
South Africaparliamentary republic
South Sudanpresidential republic
Spainparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Sri Lankapresidential republic
Sudanpresidential republic
Surinamepresidential republic
Svalbardnon-self-governing territory of Norway
Swazilandabsolute monarchy
Swedenparliamentary constitutional monarchy
Switzerlandfederal republic (formally a confederation)
Syriapresidential republic; highly authoritarian regime
Taiwansemi-presidential republic
Tajikistanpresidential republic
Tanzaniapresidential republic
Thailandconstitutional monarchy; note - interim military-affiliated government since May 2014
Togopresidential republic
Tokelauparliamentary democratic dependency (General Fono); a territory of New Zealand
Tongaconstitutional monarchy
Trinidad and Tobagoparliamentary republic
Tunisiaparliamentary republic
Turkeyparliamentary republic
Turkmenistanpresidential republic; authoritarian
Turks and Caicos Islandsparliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Tuvaluparliamentary democracy (House of Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Ugandapresidential republic
Ukrainesemi-presidential republic
United Arab Emiratesfederation of monarchies
United Kingdomparliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
United Statesconstitutional federal republic
Uruguaypresidential republic
Uzbekistanpresidential republic; highly authoritarian
Vanuatuparliamentary republic
Venezuelafederal presidential republic
Vietnamcommunist state
Virgin Islandspresidential democracy; a self-governing territory of the US
Wallis and Futunaparliamentary democracy (Territorial Assembly); overseas collectivity of France
Western Saharalegal status of territory and issue of sovereignty unresolved - territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), near Tindouf, Algeria, was led by President Mohamed ABDELAZIZ until his death in May 2016; current President Brahim GHALI elected in July 2016; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976 when Spain withdrew, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile was seated as an Organization of African Unity (OAU) member in 1984 - Morocco between 1980 and 1987 built a fortified sand berm delineating the roughly 80 percent of Western Sahara west of the barrier that currently is controlled by Morocco; guerrilla activities continued sporadically until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented on 6 September 1991 (Security Council Resolution 690) by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
Yemenin transition
Zambiapresidential republic
Zimbabwesemi-presidential republic

Source: CIA Factbook