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arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
American Samoa
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth; severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing; summers characterized by continuous daylight, while winters bring continous darkness; persistent high pressure over the interior brings dry, subsiding air that results in very little cloud cover
Antigua and Barbuda
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
dry, semiarid steppe
Bahamas, The
tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
tropical; rainy season (June to October)
cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Bosnia and Herzegovina
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Bouvet Island
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
British Indian Ocean Territory
tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
British Virgin Islands
subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Burkina Faso

three climate zones including a hot tropical savanna with a short rainy season in the southern half, a tropical hot semi-arid steppe climate typical of the Sahel region in the northern half, and small area of hot desert in the very north of the country bordering the Sahara Desert

tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Cape Verde
temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic
Cayman Islands
tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)
Central African Republic
tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
tropical in south, desert in north
temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Christmas Island
tropical with a wet season (December to April) and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Clipperton Island
tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees Celsius, wet season (May to October)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
Congo, Republic of the
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Cook Islands
tropical oceanic; moderated by trade winds; a dry season from April to November and a more humid season from December to March
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)
temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Czech Republic
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
desert; torrid, dry
tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Dominican Republic
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
East Timor
tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
El Salvador
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Equatorial Guinea
tropical; always hot, humid
hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands
maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 60 cm in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but typically does not accumulate
Faroe Islands
mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral;

French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation;

Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average;

Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November);

Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)

French Polynesia
tropical, but moderate
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul: oceanic with persistent westerly winds and high humidity;

Iles Crozet: windy, cold, wet, and cloudy;

Iles Kerguelen: oceanic, cold, overcast, windy;

Iles Eparses: tropical

tropical; always hot, humid
Gambia, The
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
Gaza Strip
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation
tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast
generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)
subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Hong Kong
subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast
mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time
Isle of Man
temperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about a third of the time
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Jan Mayen
arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog
varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
temperate; mild winters and cool summers
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds
Korea, North
temperate, with rainfall concentrated in summer; long, bitter winters
Korea, South
temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter; cold winters
influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December
dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows
temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers
tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Mediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry summers
Marshall Islands
tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)
varies from tropical to desert
Micronesia, Federated States of
tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage
moderate winters, warm summers
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
tropical to subtropical
desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)
Navassa Island
marine, tropical
varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
New Caledonia
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
New Zealand
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands
desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
Norfolk Island
subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Northern Mariana Islands
tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November
tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)
Papua New Guinea
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Paracel Islands
subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Pitcairn Islands
tropical; hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Puerto Rico
tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Saint Barthelemy
tropical, with practically no variation in temperature; has two seasons (dry and humid)
Saint Helena

Saint Helena: tropical marine; mild, tempered by trade winds;

Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild, semi-arid;

Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

Saint Kitts and Nevis
tropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Saint Lucia
tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August
Saint Martin
temperature averages 27-29 degrees Celsius all year long; low humidity, gentle trade winds, brief, intense rain showers; hurricane season stretches from July to November
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)
San Marino
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Sao Tome and Principe
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Saudi Arabia
harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Sierra Leone
tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Solomon Islands
tropical monsoon; few temperature and weather extremes
principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
South Africa
mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
South Sudan
hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
tropical; moderated by trade winds
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
varies from tropical to near temperate
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus
tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); persistent and extensive cloudiness all year
mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Trinidad and Tobago
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
subtropical desert
Turks and Caicos Islands
tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
United Arab Emirates
desert; cooler in eastern mountains
United Kingdom
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
United States
mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds from May to October; moderate rainfall from November to April; may be affected by cyclones from December to April
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
Virgin Islands
subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November
Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 250-300 cm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees Celsius
West Bank
temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters
Western Sahara
hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew
a wide equatorial band of hot and humid tropical climates, bordered north and south by subtropical temperate zones that separate two large areas of cold and dry polar climates
Ten Driest Places on Earth (Average Annual Precipitation):

McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica 0 mm (0 in)
Arica, Chile 0.76 mm (0.03 in)
Al Kufrah, Libya 0.86 mm (0.03 in)
Aswan, Egypt 0.86 mm (0.03 in)
Luxor, Egypt 0.86 mm (0.03 in)
Ica, Peru 2.29 mm (0.09 in)
Wadi Halfa, Sudan 2.45 mm (0.1 in)
Iquique, Chile 5.08 mm (0.2 in)
Pelican Point, Namibia 8.13 mm (0.32 in)
El Arab (Aoulef), Algeria 12.19 mm (0.48 in)

Ten Wettest Places on Earth (Average Annual Precipitation):

Mawsynram, India 11,871 mm (467.4 in)
Cherrapunji, India 11,777 mm (463.7 in)
Tutunendo, Colombia 11,770 mm (463.4 in)
Cropp River, New Zealand 11,516 mm (453.4 in)
San Antonia de Ureca, Equatorial Guinea 10,450 mm (411.4 in)
Debundsha, Cameroon 10,299 mm (405.5 in)
Big Bog, US (Hawaii) 10,272 mm (404.4 in)
Mt Waialeale, US (Hawaii) 9,763 mm (384.4 in)
Kukui, US (Hawaii) 9,293 mm (365.9 in)
Emeishan, China 8,169 mm (321.6 in)

Ten Coldest Places on Earth (Lowest Average Monthly Temperature):

Verkhoyansk, Russia (Siberia) -47°C (-53°F) January
Oymyakon, Russia (Siberia) -46°C (-52°F) January
Eureka, Canada -38.4°C (-37.1°F) February
Isachsen, Canada -36°C (-32.8°F) February
Alert, Canada -34°C (-28°F) February
Kap Morris Jesup, Greenland -34°C (-29°F) March
Cornwallis Island, Canada -33.5°C (-28.3°F) February
Cambridge Bay, Canada -33.5°C (28.3°F) February
Ilirnej, Russia -33°C (-28°F) January
Resolute, Canada -33°C (-27.4°F) February

Ten Hottest Places on Earth (Highest Average Monthly Temperature):

Death Valley, US (California) 39°C (101°F) July
Iranshahr, Iran 38.3°C (100.9°F) June
Ouallene, Algeria 38°C (100.4°F) July
Kuwait City, Kuwait 37.7°C (100°F) July
Medina, Saudi Arabia 36°C (97°F) July
Buckeye, US (Arizona) 34°C (93°F) July
Jazan, Saudi Arabia 33°C (91°F) June
Al Kufrah, Libya 31°C (87°F) July
Alice Springs, Australia 29°C (84°F) January
Tamanrasset, Algeria 29°C (84°F) June

mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Source: CIA Factbook