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Afghanistan19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Albania28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Algeria5 July 1962 (from France)
American Samoanone (territory of the US)
Andorra1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)
Angola11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Anguillanone (overseas territory of the UK)
Antigua and Barbuda1 November 1981 (from the UK)
Argentina9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Armenia21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 321 B.C. (Kingdom of Armenia established under the Orontid Dynasty), A.D. 884 (Armenian Kingdom reestablished under the Bagratid Dynasty); 1198 (Cilician Kingdom established); 28 May 1918 (Democratic Republic of Armenia declared)
Arubanone (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Australia1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies)
Austriano official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established); 12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed); 27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)
Azerbaijan30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
Bahamas, The10 July 1973 (from the UK)
Bahrain15 August 1971 (from the UK)
Bangladesh16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
Barbados30 November 1966 (from the UK)
Belarus25 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Belgium4 October 1830 (a provisional government declared independence from the Netherlands); 21 July 1831 (King LEOPOLD I ascended to the throne)
Belize21 September 1981 (from the UK)
Benin1 August 1960 (from France)
Bermudanone (Overseas Territory of the UK)
Bhutan17 December 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king); 8 August 1949 (Treaty of Friendship with India maintains Bhutanese independence)
Bolivia6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Bosnia and Herzegovina1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
Botswana30 September 1966 (from the UK)
Brazil7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
British Virgin Islandsnone (Overseas Territory of the UK)
Brunei1 January 1984 (from the UK)
Bulgaria3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
Burkina Faso5 August 1960 (from France)
Burma4 January 1948 (from the UK)
Burundi1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Cambodia9 November 1953 (from France)
Cameroon1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Canada1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)
Cayman Islandsnone (overseas territory of the UK)
Central African Republic13 August 1960 (from France)
Chad11 August 1960 (from France)
Chile18 September 1810 (from Spain)
China1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
Christmas Islandnone (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islandsnone (territory of Australia)
Colombia20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Comoros6 July 1975 (from France)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
Congo, Republic of the15 August 1960 (from France)
Cook Islandsnone (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 with the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)
Costa Rica15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Cote d'Ivoire7 August 1960 (from France)
Croatia25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia; notable earlier dates: ca. 925 (Kingdom of Croatia established); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)
Cuba20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902); not acknowledged by the Cuban Government as a day of independence

none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Cyprus16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey
Denmarkca. 965 (unified and Christianized under HARALD I Gormsson); 5 June 1849 (became a parliamentary constitutional monarchy)
Djibouti27 June 1977 (from France)
Dominica3 November 1978 (from the UK)
Dominican Republic27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Ecuador24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Egypt28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the military-led revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
El Salvador15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Equatorial Guinea12 October 1968 (from Spain)
Eritrea24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
Estonia24 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia); 20 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)
Ethiopiaoldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
European Union7 February 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed establishing the European Union); 1 November 1993 (Maastricht Treaty entered into force)

note: the Treaties of Rome, signed on 25 March 1957 and subsequently entered into force on 1 January 1958, created the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; a series of subsequent treaties have been adopted to increase efficiency and transparency, to prepare for new member states, and to introduce new areas of cooperation - such as a single currency; the Treaty of Lisbon, signed on 13 December 2007 and entered into force on 1 December 2009 is the most recent of these treaties and is intended to make the EU more democratic, more efficient, and better able to address global problems with one voice
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Faroe Islandsnone (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Fiji10 October 1970 (from the UK)
Finland6 December 1917 (from Russia)
Franceno official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
French Polynesianone (overseas lands of France)
Gabon17 August 1960 (from France)
Gambia, The18 February 1965 (from the UK)
Georgia9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
Germany18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)
Ghana6 March 1957 (from the UK)
Gibraltarnone (overseas territory of the UK)
Greece3 February 1830 (from the Ottoman Empire); note - 25 March 1821, outbreak of the national revolt against the Ottomans; 3 February 1830, signing of the London Protocol recognizing Greek independence by Great Britain, France, and Russia
Greenlandnone (extensive self-rule as part of the Kingdom of Denmark; foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland)
Grenada7 February 1974 (from the UK)
Guamnone (territory of the US)
Guatemala15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Guernseynone (British Crown dependency)
Guinea2 October 1958 (from France)
Guinea-Bissau24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
Guyana26 May 1966 (from the UK)
Haiti1 January 1804 (from France)
Holy See (Vatican City)11 February 1929; note - the three treaties signed with Italy on 11 February 1929 acknowledged, among other things, the full sovereignty of the Holy See and established its territorial extent; however, the origin of the Papal States, which over centuries varied considerably in extent, may be traced back to A.D. 754
Honduras15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Hong Kongnone (special administrative region of China)
Hungary16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
Iceland1 December 1918 (became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown); 17 June 1944 (from Denmark; birthday of Jon SIGURDSSON, leader of Iceland's 19th Century independence movement)
India15 August 1947 (from the UK)
Indonesia17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
Iran1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed); notable earlier dates: ca. 550 B.C. (Achaemenid (Persian) Empire established); A.D. 1501 (Iran reunified under the Safavid Dynasty); 1794 (beginning of Qajar Dynasty); 12 December 1925 (modern Iran established under the PAHLAVI Dynasty)
Iraq3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
Ireland6 December 1921 (from the UK by the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which ended British rule); 6 December 1922 (Irish Free State established); 18 April 1949 (Republic of Ireland Act enabled)
Israel14 May 1948 (following League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Italy17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
Jamaica6 August 1962 (from the UK)
Japan3 May 1947 (current constitution adopted as amendment to Meiji Constitution); notable earlier dates: 11 February 660 B.C. (mythological date of the founding of the nation by Emperor JIMMU); 29 November 1890 (Meiji Constitution provides for constitutional monarchy)
Jerseynone (British Crown dependency)
Jordan25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Kazakhstan16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Kenya12 December 1963 (from the UK)
Kiribati12 July 1979 (from the UK)
Korea, North15 August 1945 (from Japan)
Korea, South15 August 1945 (from Japan)
Kosovo17 February 2008 (from Serbia)
Kuwait19 June 1961 (from the UK)
Kyrgyzstan31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Laos19 July 1949 (from France by the Franco-Lao General Convention); 22 October 1953 (Franco-Lao Treaty recognizes full independence)
Latvia18 November 1918 (from Soviet Russia); 4 May 1990 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)
Lebanon22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Lesotho4 October 1966 (from the UK)
Liberia26 July 1847
Libya24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
Liechtenstein23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire); 24 August 1866 (independence from the German Confederation)
Lithuania16 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia and Germany); 11 March 1990 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date); 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
Luxembourg1839 (from the Netherlands)
Macaunone (special administrative region of China)
Madagascar26 June 1960 (from France)
Malawi6 July 1964 (from the UK)
Malaysia31 August 1957 (from the UK)
Maldives26 July 1965 (from the UK)
Mali22 September 1960 (from France)
Malta21 September 1964 (from the UK)
Marshall Islands21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Mauritania28 November 1960 (from France)
Mauritius12 March 1968 (from the UK)
Mexico16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
Micronesia, Federated States of3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Moldova27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Monaco1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)
Mongolia29 December 1911 (independence declared from China; in actuality, autonomy attained); 11 July 1921 (from China)
Montenegro3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)
Montserratnone (overseas territory of the UK)
Morocco2 March 1956 (from France)
Mozambique25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Namibia21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
Nauru31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)
Nepal1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
Netherlands23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581, they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)
New Caledonianone (overseas collectivity of France); note - in two independence referenda, on 4 November 2018 and 4 October 2020, the majority voted to reject independence in favor of maintaining the status quo
New Zealand26 September 1907 (from the UK)
Nicaragua15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Niger3 August 1960 (from France)
Nigeria1 October 1960 (from the UK)
Niue19 October 1974 (Niue became a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand)
Norfolk Islandnone (territory of Australia)
Northern Mariana Islandsnone (commonwealth in political union with the US)
Norway7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)
Oman1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Pakistan14 August 1947 (from British India)
Palau1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Panama3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain on 28 November 1821)
Papua New Guinea16 September 1975 (from the Australia-administered UN trusteeship)
Paraguay14-15 May 1811 (from Spain); note - the uprising against Spanish authorities took place during the night of 14-15 May 1811 and both days are celebrated in Paraguay
Peru28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Philippines4 July 1946 (from the US)
Pitcairn Islandsnone (overseas territory of the UK)
Poland11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 14 April 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
Portugal1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
Puerto Riconone (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
Qatar3 September 1971 (from the UK)
Romania9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
Russia25 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union; Russian SFSR renamed Russian Federation); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
Rwanda1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Saint Barthelemynone (overseas collectivity of France)
Saint Kitts and Nevis19 September 1983 (from the UK)
Saint Lucia22 February 1979 (from the UK)
Saint Martinnone (overseas collectivity of France)
Saint Pierre and Miquelonnone (overseas collectivity collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines27 October 1979 (from the UK)
Samoa1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
San Marino3 September 301 (traditional founding date)
Sao Tome and Principe12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Saudi Arabia23 September 1932 (unification of the kingdom)
Senegal4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
Serbia5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro); notable earlier dates: 1217 (Serbian Kingdom established); 16 April 1346 (Serbian Empire established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Serbian independence); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)
Seychelles29 June 1976 (from the UK)
Sierra Leone27 April 1961 (from the UK)
Singapore9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
Sint Maarten

none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Slovakia1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Slovenia25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Solomon Islands7 July 1978 (from the UK)
Somalia1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
South Africa31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 22 August 1934 (Status of the Union Act); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)
South Sudan9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
Spain1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
Sri Lanka4 February 1948 (from the UK)
Sudan1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
Suriname25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)
Svalbardnone (territory of Norway)
Sweden6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
Switzerland1 August 1291 (founding of the Swiss Confederation)
Syria17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Tajikistan9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Tanzania26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)
Thailand1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
Togo27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Tokelaunone (territory of New Zealand)
Tonga4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate status)
Trinidad and Tobago31 August 1962 (from the UK)
Tunisia20 March 1956 (from France)
Turkey29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed, succeeding the Ottoman Empire)
Turkmenistan27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Turks and Caicos Islandsnone (overseas territory of the UK)
Tuvalu1 October 1978 (from the UK)
Uganda9 October 1962 (from the UK)
Ukraine24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus); 1199 (Principality (later Kingdom) of Ruthenia formed; 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate); 22 January 1918 (from Soviet Russia)
United Arab Emirates2 December 1971 (from the UK)
United Kingdomno official date of independence: 927 (minor English kingdoms unite); 3 March 1284 (enactment of the Statute of Rhuddlan uniting England and Wales); 1536 (Act of Union formally incorporates England and Wales); 1 May 1707 (Acts of Union formally unite England, Scotland, and Wales as Great Britain); 1 January 1801 (Acts of Union formally unite Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland); 6 December 1921 (Anglo-Irish Treaty formalizes partition of Ireland; six counties remain part of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland); 12 April 1927 (Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act establishes current name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
United States4 July 1776 (declared independence from Great Britain); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
Uruguay25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
Uzbekistan1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Vanuatu30 July 1980 (from France and the UK)
Venezuela5 July 1811 (from Spain)
Vietnam2 September 1945 (from France)
Virgin Islandsnone (territory of the US)
Wake Islandnone (territory of the US)
Wallis and Futunanone (overseas collectivity of France)
Yemen22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); notable earlier dates: North Yemen became independent on 1 November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate on 27 September 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
Zambia24 October 1964 (from the UK)
Zimbabwe18 April 1980 (from the UK)

Source: CIA Factbook