Merchandise exports to low- and middle-income economies within region (% of total merchandise exports) - Country Ranking

Definition: Merchandise exports to low- and middle-income economies within region are the sum of merchandise exports from the reporting economy to other low- and middle-income economies in the same World Bank region as a percentage of total merchandise exports by the economy. Data are computed only if at least half of the economies in the partner country group had non-missing data. No figures are shown for high-income economies, because they are a separate category in the World Bank classification of economies.

Source: World Bank staff estimates based data from International Monetary Fund's Direction of Trade database.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Bhutan 98.65 2016
2 Swaziland 94.47 2016
3 Zimbabwe 93.35 2016
4 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 88.85 2016
5 Afghanistan 83.75 2016
6 Lao PDR 83.06 2016
7 The Gambia 79.86 2016
8 Mongolia 79.39 2016
9 Solomon Islands 73.05 2016
10 Togo 68.19 2016
11 Belarus 63.62 2016
12 Myanmar 63.12 2016
13 Mali 61.55 2016
14 Syrian Arab Republic 60.74 2016
15 Nepal 60.13 2016
16 Lesotho 58.15 2016
17 Kiribati 57.07 2016
18 Moldova 54.34 2016
19 Burundi 53.25 2016
20 Georgia 52.82 2016
21 Tajikistan 49.34 2016
22 Paraguay 49.26 2016
23 Uganda 47.46 2016
24 Montenegro 47.02 2016
25 Bolivia 46.47 2016
26 El Salvador 45.70 2016
27 Senegal 44.99 2016
28 Namibia 44.65 2016
29 Guatemala 41.84 2016
30 Armenia 41.10 2016
31 Kyrgyz Republic 39.02 2016
32 Rwanda 38.95 2016
33 Malawi 38.51 2016
34 Serbia 38.14 2016
35 Kenya 36.51 2016
36 Nicaragua 35.86 2016
37 Sierra Leone 34.16 2016
38 Fiji 33.84 2016
39 Bosnia and Herzegovina 33.19 2016
40 Thailand 32.77 2016
41 Tanzania 32.14 2016
42 Honduras 31.56 2016
43 Costa Rica 30.90 2016
44 Timor-Leste 30.62 2016
45 Ethiopia 30.23 2016
46 Cuba 30.00 2016
47 Uzbekistan 29.90 2016
48 South Africa 27.99 2016
49 Malaysia 27.46 2016
50 Dominica 27.43 2016
51 Ukraine 27.19 2016
52 Côte d'Ivoire 27.13 2016
53 Samoa 26.92 2016
54 Azerbaijan 26.87 2016
55 Colombia 26.63 2016
56 Grenada 26.49 2016
57 Botswana 26.45 2016
58 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 25.45 2016
59 Argentina 25.40 2016
60 Macedonia 25.11 2016
61 Indonesia 24.58 2016
62 Bulgaria 24.00 2016
63 Vietnam 23.80 2016
64 Yemen 23.16 2016
65 Benin 22.88 2016
66 Kazakhstan 22.25 2016
67 Guinea 22.16 2016
68 Zambia 21.94 2016
69 Croatia 21.17 2016
70 Mozambique 20.57 2016
71 Dem. Rep. Congo 20.37 2016
72 Lebanon 20.31 2016
73 Panama 20.25 2016
74 Russia 20.16 2016
75 Ecuador 20.15 2016
76 Niger 19.73 2016
77 Philippines 19.57 2016
78 Papua New Guinea 19.18 2016
79 Mauritius 18.23 2016
80 Albania 17.88 2016
81 Central African Republic 17.67 2016
82 Congo 17.20 2016
83 Tuvalu 17.20 2016
84 Jordan 17.07 2016
85 Ghana 16.18 2016
86 Brazil 16.01 2016
87 Turkmenistan 15.64 2016
88 St. Lucia 15.21 2016
89 Peru 14.97 2016
90 Cambodia 13.93 2016
91 Burkina Faso 13.35 2016
92 Dominican Republic 13.20 2016
93 Romania 12.73 2016
94 Pakistan 12.47 2016
95 Nigeria 12.24 2016
96 Vanuatu 12.15 2016
97 Libya 12.10 2016
98 Cameroon 11.76 2016
99 Guyana 11.53 2016
100 Turkey 11.33 2016
101 Liberia 11.11 2016
102 Tunisia 10.62 2016
103 Tonga 10.58 2016
104 China 10.44 2016
105 Mauritania 10.34 2016
106 São Tomé and Principe 10.19 2016
107 Belize 9.31 2016
108 Suriname 9.23 2016
109 Egypt 9.03 2016
110 Venezuela 9.00 2016
111 Sri Lanka 8.20 2016
112 Haiti 8.10 2016
113 Madagascar 7.22 2016
114 Comoros 7.02 2016
115 India 6.48 2016
116 Guinea-Bissau 6.14 2016
117 Jamaica 5.50 2016
118 Angola 5.40 2016
119 Djibouti 5.14 2016
120 Algeria 5.07 2016
121 Mexico 4.68 2016
122 Equatorial Guinea 4.43 2016
123 Somalia 4.42 2016
124 Morocco 4.09 2016
125 Sudan 2.85 2016
126 Bangladesh 2.52 2016
127 Gabon 2.14 2016
128 Nauru 1.61 2016
129 Iraq 1.06 2016
130 Iran 0.58 2016
131 Eritrea 0.27 2016
132 Cabo Verde 0.15 2016
133 Chad 0.12 2016

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Development Relevance: The relative importance of intraregional trade is higher for both landlocked countries and small countries with close trade links to the largest regional economy. For most low- and middle-income economies - especially smaller ones - there is a "geographic bias" favoring intraregional trade. Despite the broad trend toward globalization and the reduction of trade barriers, the relative share of intraregional trade increased for most economies between 1999 and 2010. This is due partly to trade-related advantages, such as proximity, lower transport costs, increased knowledge from repeated interaction, and cultural and historical affinity. The direction of trade is also influenced by preferential trade agreements that a country has made with other economies. Though formal agreements on trade liberalization do not automatically increase trade, they nevertheless affect the direction of trade between the participating economies.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on exports and imports are from the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Direction of Trade database and should be broadly consistent with data from other sources, such as the United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database. All high-income economies and major low- and middle-income economies report trade data to the IMF on a timely basis, covering about 85 percent of trade for recent years. Trade data for less timely reporters and for countries that do not report are estimated using reports of trading partner countries. Therefore, data on trade between developing and high-income economies should be generally complete. But trade flows between many low- and middle-income economies - particularly those in Sub-Saharan Africa - are not well recorded, and the value of trade among low- and middle-income economies may be understated.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual