Forest rents (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Forest rents are roundwood harvest times the product of average prices and a region-specific rental rate.

Source: Estimates based on sources and methods described in "The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium" (World Bank, 2011).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Solomon Islands 21.25 2017
2 Liberia 20.19 2017
3 Dem. Rep. Congo 17.54 2017
4 Guinea-Bissau 16.33 2017
5 Burundi 15.74 2017
6 Somalia 15.18 2017
7 Uganda 13.85 2017
8 Central African Republic 13.49 2017
9 Mozambique 11.64 2017
10 Sierra Leone 11.47 2017
11 Niger 11.07 2017
12 Ethiopia 10.18 2017
13 Malawi 9.58 2017
14 Burkina Faso 9.37 2017
15 Guinea 9.22 2017
16 Madagascar 8.87 2017
17 Guyana 7.22 2017
18 Togo 6.95 2017
19 Chad 6.70 2017
20 Ghana 6.09 2017
21 Lesotho 5.89 2017
22 The Gambia 5.75 2017
23 Rwanda 5.66 2017
24 Benin 5.62 2017
25 Congo 4.72 2017
26 Bhutan 3.87 2017
27 Tanzania 3.76 2017
28 Cameroon 3.69 2017
29 Lao PDR 3.59 2017
30 Myanmar 3.43 2017
31 Zambia 3.41 2017
32 Mali 3.25 2017
33 Mauritania 3.05 2017
34 Zimbabwe 3.04 2017
35 São Tomé and Principe 2.93 2017
36 Papua New Guinea 2.91 2017
37 Gabon 2.60 2017
38 Eswatini 2.48 2017
39 Kenya 2.47 2017
40 Senegal 2.43 2017
41 Comoros 2.38 2017
42 Nicaragua 2.01 2017
43 Eritrea 1.84 2011
44 Malaysia 1.81 2017
45 Cambodia 1.73 2017
46 Suriname 1.73 2017
47 Nigeria 1.62 2017
48 Honduras 1.62 2017
49 Uruguay 1.60 2017
50 Paraguay 1.55 2017
51 Equatorial Guinea 1.41 2017
52 Haiti 1.24 2017
53 Guatemala 1.23 2017
54 Costa Rica 1.18 2017
55 Nepal 1.13 2017
56 Sudan 1.07 2017
57 El Salvador 0.94 2017
58 Latvia 0.86 2017
59 Belarus 0.84 2017
60 Vanuatu 0.79 2017
61 Estonia 0.77 2017
62 Cabo Verde 0.75 2017
63 Namibia 0.72 2017
64 Djibouti 0.67 2017
65 Vietnam 0.66 2017
66 Fiji 0.62 2017
67 Brazil 0.62 2017
68 South Africa 0.60 2017
69 Chile 0.56 2017
70 Bolivia 0.47 2017
71 Thailand 0.46 2017
72 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.45 2017
73 Samoa 0.45 2017
74 Indonesia 0.44 2017
75 Belize 0.43 2017
76 Angola 0.41 2017
77 Afghanistan 0.38 2017
78 Botswana 0.37 2017
79 Montenegro 0.37 2017
80 Serbia 0.36 2017
81 Ecuador 0.36 2017
82 New Zealand 0.35 2017
83 Finland 0.35 2017
84 Tunisia 0.32 2017
85 Lithuania 0.30 2017
86 Ukraine 0.30 2017
87 India 0.29 2017
88 Philippines 0.28 2017
89 Moldova 0.27 2017
90 Mongolia 0.27 2017
91 Russia 0.27 2017
92 Egypt 0.25 2017
93 Croatia 0.25 2017
94 Slovak Republic 0.23 2017
95 Jamaica 0.23 2017
96 Armenia 0.23 2017
97 Morocco 0.22 2017
98 Pakistan 0.22 2017
99 Bulgaria 0.21 2017
100 Sweden 0.21 2017
101 Bangladesh 0.20 2017
102 Peru 0.19 2017
103 Colombia 0.18 2017
104 Slovenia 0.18 2017
105 Romania 0.17 2017
106 Poland 0.17 2017
107 Algeria 0.16 2017
108 Mexico 0.16 2017
109 Albania 0.16 2017
110 Portugal 0.15 2017
111 Timor-Leste 0.15 2017
112 Czech Republic 0.15 2017
113 North Macedonia 0.14 2017
114 Australia 0.14 2017
115 Sri Lanka 0.14 2017
116 Libya 0.11 2017
117 Seychelles 0.11 2017
118 China 0.10 2017
119 Panama 0.10 2017
120 Hungary 0.09 2017
121 Cuba 0.09 2017
122 Argentina 0.08 2017
123 Kiribati 0.08 2017
124 Georgia 0.08 2017
125 Canada 0.07 2017
126 Austria 0.07 2017
127 Dominica 0.07 2017
128 Turkey 0.06 2017
129 Brunei 0.06 2017
130 Trinidad and Tobago 0.06 2017
131 Dominican Republic 0.06 2017
132 Venezuela 0.05 2014
133 Yemen 0.05 2017
134 Tonga 0.05 2017
135 Norway 0.04 2017
136 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.04 2017
137 France 0.04 2017
138 United States 0.03 2017
139 Jordan 0.03 2017
140 Spain 0.03 2017
141 Germany 0.03 2017
142 St. Lucia 0.02 2017
143 Tajikistan 0.02 2017
144 Denmark 0.02 2017
145 Belgium 0.02 2017
146 Azerbaijan 0.02 2017
147 New Caledonia 0.02 2000
148 Japan 0.02 2017
149 The Bahamas 0.02 2017
150 Barbados 0.01 2017
151 Luxembourg 0.01 2017
152 Korea 0.01 2017
153 Greece 0.01 2017
154 Ireland 0.01 2017
155 Italy 0.01 2017
156 Kyrgyz Republic 0.01 2017
157 Switzerland 0.01 2017
158 Iran 0.01 2017
159 Netherlands 0.01 2017
160 United Kingdom 0.01 2017
161 Iraq 0.00 2017
162 Kazakhstan 0.00 2017
163 Syrian Arab Republic 0.00 2007
164 Mauritius 0.00 2017
165 Oman 0.00 2017
166 Liechtenstein 0.00 2016
167 Uzbekistan 0.00 2017
168 Saudi Arabia 0.00 2017
169 Lebanon 0.00 2017
170 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.00 2017
171 Cyprus 0.00 2017
172 Macao SAR, China 0.00 2017
173 Bahrain 0.00 2017
174 Kuwait 0.00 2017
175 Singapore 0.00 2017
176 Iceland 0.00 2017
177 United Arab Emirates 0.00 2017
178 Israel 0.00 2017
179 Qatar 0.00 2017
180 Malta 0.00 2017
180 Nauru 0.00 2017
180 San Marino 0.00 2017
180 Cayman Islands 0.00 2006
180 Turkmenistan 0.00 2017
180 Tuvalu 0.00 2017
180 Greenland 0.00 2016
180 Andorra 0.00 2017
180 Monaco 0.00 2016
180 St. Kitts and Nevis 0.00 2017
180 Palau 0.00 2017
180 Antigua and Barbuda 0.00 2017
180 Puerto Rico 0.00 2016
180 Côte d'Ivoire 0.00 2017
180 Grenada 0.00 2017

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Development Relevance: Accounting for the contribution of natural resources to economic output is important in building an analytical framework for sustainable development. In some countries earnings from natural resources, especially from fossil fuels and minerals, account for a sizable share of GDP, and much of these earnings come in the form of economic rents - revenues above the cost of extracting the resources. Natural resources give rise to economic rents because they are not produced. For produced goods and services competitive forces expand supply until economic profits are driven to zero, but natural resources in fixed supply often command returns well in excess of their cost of production. Rents from nonrenewable resources - fossil fuels and minerals - as well as rents from overharvesting of forests indicate the liquidation of a country's capital stock. When countries use such rents to support current consumption rather than to invest in new capital to replace what is being used up, they are, in effect, borrowing against their future.

Limitations and Exceptions: This definition of economic rent differs from that used in the System of National Accounts, where rents are a form of property income, consisting of payments to landowners by a tenant for the use of the land or payments to the owners of subsoil assets by institutional units permitting them to extract subsoil deposits.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The estimates of natural resources rents are calculated as the difference between the price of a commodity and the average cost of producing it. This is done by estimating the world price of units of specific commodities and subtracting estimates of average unit costs of extraction or harvesting costs (including a normal return on capital). These unit rents are then multiplied by the physical quantities countries extract or harvest to determine the rents for each commodity as a share of gross domestic product (GDP).

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual