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Togo Demographics Profile

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Population8,283,189 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Nationalitynoun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groupsAdja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response 0.4% (2013-14 est.)

note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups
LanguagesFrench (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
ReligionsChristian 42.3%, folk religion 36.9%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <1%, Buddhist <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, none 6.2% (2020 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 39.73% (male 1,716,667/female 1,703,230)

15-24 years: 19.03% (male 817,093/female 820,971)

25-54 years: 33.26% (male 1,423,554/female 1,439,380)

55-64 years: 4.42% (male 179,779/female 200,392)

65 years and over: 3.57% (male 132,304/female 175,074) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 77.1

youth dependency ratio: 72

elderly dependency ratio: 5.1

potential support ratio: 19.4 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 20 years

male: 19.7 years

female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.51% (2021 est.)
Birth rate32.34 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate5.39 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-1.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributionone of the more densely populated African nations with most of the population residing in rural communities, density is highest in the south on or near the Atlantic coast as shown in this population distribution map
Urbanizationurban population: 43.4% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population1.874 million LOME (capital) (2021)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.9 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
Maternal mortality rate396 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 42.64 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 47.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 37.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.99 years

male: 68.37 years

female: 73.69 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate4.28 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate23.9% (2017)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 92.3% of population

rural: 56% of population

total: 70.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population

rural: 44% of population

total: 29.1% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures6.2% (2017)
Physicians density0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 80.4% of population

rural: 16.2% of population

total: 41.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 19.6% of population

rural: 83.8% of population

total: 57.4% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS110,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,000 (2020 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.4% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.2% (2017)
Education expenditures5.4% of GDP (2018)
Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 63.7%

male: 77.3%

female: 51.2% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years

male: 14 years

female: 12 years (2017)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021

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