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Togo vs. Benin

Demographics

TogoBenin
Population
8,608,444 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

12,864,634 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 39.73% (male 1,716,667/female 1,703,230)
15-24 years: 19.03% (male 817,093/female 820,971)
25-54 years: 33.26% (male 1,423,554/female 1,439,380)
55-64 years: 4.42% (male 179,779/female 200,392)
65 years and over: 3.57% (male 132,304/female 175,074) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 45.56% (male 2,955,396/female 2,906,079)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,300,453/female 1,318,880)
25-54 years: 28.54% (male 1,735,229/female 1,935,839)
55-64 years: 3.15% (male 193,548/female 211,427)
65 years and over: 2.39% (male 140,513/female 167,270) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 20 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 17 years
male: 16.4 years
female: 17.6 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.56% (2020 est.)
3.4% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
32 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
42.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 98.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 96.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 38.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 58.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 66.6 years
male: 63.9 years
female: 69.3 years (2020 est.)
total population: 61.4 years
male: 59.6 years
female: 63.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.22 children born/woman (2020 est.)
5.53 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2.3% (2019 est.)
1% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese
Ethnic groups
Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response .4% (2013-14 est.)
note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups
Fon and related 38.4%, Adja and related 15.1%, Yoruba and related 12%, Bariba and related 9.6%, Fulani and related 8.6%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4.3%, Dendi and related 2.9%, other 0.9%, foreigner 1.9% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
120,000 (2019 est.)
75,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Christian 43.7%, folk 35.6%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <.1%, Buddhist <.1%, Jewish <.1%, other .5%, none 6.2% (2010 est.)
Muslim 27.7%, Roman Catholic 25.5%, Protestant 13.5% (Celestial 6.7%, Methodist 3.4%, other Protestant 3.4%), Vodoun 11.6%, other Christian 9.5%, other traditional religions 2.6%, other 2.6%, none 5.8% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,000 (2019 est.)
2,300 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.7%
male: 77.3%
female: 51.2% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.4%
male: 54%
female: 31.1% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 14 years NA
female: 12 years NA (2017)
total: 13 years
male: 14 years
female: 11 years (2016)
Education expenditures
5% of GDP (2016)
4% of GDP (2016)
Urbanization
urban population: 42.8% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 48.4% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 70.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 29.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 81.2% of population
rural: 72.2% of population
total: 76.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population
rural: 27.8% of population
total: 23.6% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 80.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 41.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.6% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 57.4% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 58.7% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 36% of population
unimproved: urban: 41.3% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 64% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.828 million LOME (capital) (2020)
285,000 PORTO-NOVO (capital) (2018); 1.056 million Abomey-Calavi, 692,000 COTONOU (seat of government) (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
397 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
15.2% (2017)
16.8% (2018)
Health expenditures
6.2% (2017)
3.7% (2017)
Physicians density
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.4% (2016)
9.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
21 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

20.4 years (2017/18 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.

Benin has a youthful age structure – almost 65% of the population is under the age of 25 – which is bolstered by high fertility and population growth rates. Benin’s total fertility has been falling over time but remains high, declining from almost 7 children per women in 1990 to 4.8 in 2016. Benin’s low contraceptive use and high unmet need for contraception contribute to the sustained high fertility rate. Although the majority of Beninese women use skilled health care personnel for antenatal care and delivery, the high rate of maternal mortality indicates the need for more access to high quality obstetric care.

Poverty, unemployment, increased living costs, and dwindling resources increasingly drive the Beninese to migrate. An estimated 4.4 million, more than 40%, of Beninese live abroad. Virtually all Beninese emigrants move to West African countries, particularly Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire. Of the less than 1% of Beninese emigrants who settle in Europe, the vast majority live in France, Benin’s former colonial ruler.

With about 40% of the population living below the poverty line, many desperate parents resort to sending their children to work in wealthy households as domestic servants (a common practice known as vidomegon), mines, quarries, or agriculture domestically or in Nigeria and other neighboring countries, often under brutal conditions. Unlike in other West African countries, where rural people move to the coast, farmers from Benin’s densely populated southern and northwestern regions move to the historically sparsely populated central region to pursue agriculture. Immigrants from West African countries came to Benin in increasing numbers between 1992 and 2002 because of its political stability and porous borders.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
23.9% (2017)
15.5% (2017/18)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 77.1
youth dependency ratio: 72
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 82.6
youth dependency ratio: 76.6
elderly dependency ratio: 6
potential support ratio: 16.7 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook