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Togo vs. Burkina Faso

Demographics

TogoBurkina Faso
Population
8,608,444 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

20,835,401 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 39.73% (male 1,716,667/female 1,703,230)
15-24 years: 19.03% (male 817,093/female 820,971)
25-54 years: 33.26% (male 1,423,554/female 1,439,380)
55-64 years: 4.42% (male 179,779/female 200,392)
65 years and over: 3.57% (male 132,304/female 175,074) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 43.58% (male 4,606,350/female 4,473,951)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 2,121,012/female 2,114,213)
25-54 years: 29.36% (male 2,850,621/female 3,265,926)
55-64 years: 3.57% (male 321,417/female 423,016)
65 years and over: 3.16% (male 284,838/female 374,057) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 20 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 17.9 years
male: 17 years
female: 18.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.56% (2020 est.)
2.66% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
32 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
35.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 98.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 95.6 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 38.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 66.6 years
male: 63.9 years
female: 69.3 years (2020 est.)
total population: 62.7 years
male: 60.9 years
female: 64.5 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.22 children born/woman (2020 est.)
4.51 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2.3% (2019 est.)
0.8% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
Ethnic groups
Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response .4% (2013-14 est.)
note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups
Mossi 52%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 7%, Bobo 4.9%, Gurunsi 4.6%, Senufo 4.5%, Bissa 3.7%, Lobi 2.4%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.3%, other 7.2% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
120,000 (2019 est.)
100,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Christian 43.7%, folk 35.6%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <.1%, Buddhist <.1%, Jewish <.1%, other .5%, none 6.2% (2010 est.)
Muslim 61.5%, Roman Catholic 23.3%, traditional/animist 7.8%, Protestant 6.5%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.7% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,000 (2019 est.)
3,100 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.7%
male: 77.3%
female: 51.2% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 41.2%
male: 50.1%
female: 32.7% (2018)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 14 years NA
female: 12 years NA (2017)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2019)
Education expenditures
5% of GDP (2016)
4.2% of GDP (2015)
Urbanization
urban population: 42.8% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 30.6% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 70.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 29.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 94.9% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 75.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 24.4% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 80.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 41.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.6% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 57.4% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 88.2% of population
rural: 30.2% of population
total: 46.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 11.8% of population
rural: 69.8% of population
total: 53.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.828 million LOME (capital) (2020)
2.780 million OUAGADOUGOU (capital), 972,000 Bobo-Dioulasso (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
320 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
15.2% (2017)
17.7% (2018)
Health expenditures
6.2% (2017)
6.9% (2017)
Physicians density
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.4% (2016)
5.6% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
21 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

19.4 years (2010 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.

Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.

Migration has traditionally been a way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by stints of up to two years abroad. Cote d’Ivoire remains the top destination, although it has experienced periods of internal conflict. Under French colonization, Burkina Faso became a main labor source for agricultural and factory work in Cote d’Ivoire. Burkinabe also migrated to Ghana, Mali, and Senegal for work between the world wars. Burkina Faso attracts migrants from Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali, who often share common ethnic backgrounds with the Burkinabe. Despite its food shortages and high poverty rate, Burkina Faso has become a destination for refugees in recent years and hosts about 33,500 Malians as of May 2017.

(2018)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
23.9% (2017)
32.5% (2018/19)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 77.1
youth dependency ratio: 72
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 87.9
youth dependency ratio: 83.4
elderly dependency ratio: 4.5
potential support ratio: 22.1 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook