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Togo vs. Ghana

Demographics

TogoGhana
Population
8,608,444 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

29,340,248 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 39.73% (male 1,716,667/female 1,703,230)
15-24 years: 19.03% (male 817,093/female 820,971)
25-54 years: 33.26% (male 1,423,554/female 1,439,380)
55-64 years: 4.42% (male 179,779/female 200,392)
65 years and over: 3.57% (male 132,304/female 175,074) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 37.44% (male 5,524,932/female 5,460,943)
15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,717,481/female 2,752,601)
25-54 years: 34.27% (male 4,875,985/female 5,177,959)
55-64 years: 5.21% (male 743,757/female 784,517)
65 years and over: 4.44% (male 598,387/female 703,686) (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 20 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 21.4 years
male: 21 years
female: 21.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.56% (2020 est.)
2.15% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
32 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
29.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
-1.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 98.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 97.2 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 38.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
total: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 66.6 years
male: 63.9 years
female: 69.3 years (2020 est.)
total population: 68.2 years
male: 65.6 years
female: 70.8 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.22 children born/woman (2020 est.)
3.9 children born/woman (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2.3% (2019 est.)
1.7% (2019 est.)
Nationality
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups
Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response .4% (2013-14 est.)
note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups
Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
120,000 (2019 est.)
340,000 (2019 est.)
Religions
Christian 43.7%, folk 35.6%, Muslim 14%, Hindu <.1%, Buddhist <.1%, Jewish <.1%, other .5%, none 6.2% (2010 est.)
Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
3,000 (2019 est.)
14,000 (2019 est.)
Languages
French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2% (2010 est.)

note: English is the official language

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.7%
male: 77.3%
female: 51.2% (2015)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 13 years
male: 14 years NA
female: 12 years NA (2017)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2019)
Education expenditures
5% of GDP (2016)
3.6% of GDP (2017)
Urbanization
urban population: 42.8% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 57.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.34% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 70.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 29.1% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 80.6% of population
total: 89.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 19.4% of population
total: 10.1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 80.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 41.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.6% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 57.4% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 84.2% of population
rural: 49.5% of population
total: 68.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 15.8% of population
rural: 50.5% of population
total: 31.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population
1.828 million LOME (capital) (2020)
3.348 million Kumasi, 2.514 million ACCRA (capital), 946,000 Sekondi Takoradi (2020)
Maternal mortality rate
396 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
308 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
15.2% (2017)
12.6% (2017/18)
Health expenditures
6.2% (2017)
3.3% (2017)
Physicians density
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.4% (2016)
10.9% (2016)
Mother's mean age at first birth
21 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

22.3 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.

Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in September 2017 was home to more than 9,600 refugees from Ghana.

Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.

Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.

During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.

Contraceptive prevalence rate
23.9% (2017)
30.8% (2017)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 77.1
youth dependency ratio: 72
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 67.4
youth dependency ratio: 62.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook