High-technology exports (current US$) - Country Ranking

Definition: High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Source: United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 China 496,007,000,000.00 2016
2 Germany 189,646,000,000.00 2016
3 United States 153,187,000,000.00 2016
4 Singapore 126,323,000,000.00 2016
5 Korea 118,365,000,000.00 2016
6 France 103,840,000,000.00 2016
7 Japan 92,883,130,000.00 2016
8 United Kingdom 68,279,840,000.00 2016
9 Malaysia 55,588,250,000.00 2016
10 Switzerland 54,886,910,000.00 2016
11 Netherlands 53,045,470,000.00 2016
12 Mexico 46,809,600,000.00 2016
13 Vietnam 38,735,940,000.00 2015
14 Belgium 38,067,700,000.00 2016
15 Thailand 34,720,650,000.00 2016
16 Ireland 33,778,780,000.00 2016
17 Italy 27,905,530,000.00 2016
18 Philippines 26,139,670,000.00 2016
19 Canada 23,974,180,000.00 2016
20 Austria 21,001,940,000.00 2016
21 Czech Republic 20,289,090,000.00 2016
22 Sweden 14,981,090,000.00 2016
23 Spain 14,201,510,000.00 2016
24 India 13,335,890,000.00 2016
25 Poland 13,318,850,000.00 2016
26 Hungary 12,444,200,000.00 2016
27 Israel 10,278,900,000.00 2016
28 Brazil 9,775,328,000.00 2016
29 Denmark 9,302,858,000.00 2016
30 Slovak Republic 6,851,100,000.00 2016
31 Russia 6,639,583,000.00 2016
32 Australia 4,572,081,000.00 2016
33 Romania 4,297,657,000.00 2016
34 Indonesia 3,947,115,000.00 2016
35 Norway 3,913,924,000.00 2016
36 Finland 3,328,914,000.00 2016
37 Portugal 2,251,276,000.00 2016
38 Turkey 2,182,767,000.00 2016
39 Kazakhstan 2,057,663,000.00 2016
40 South Africa 1,906,054,000.00 2016
41 Lithuania 1,809,152,000.00 2016
42 Slovenia 1,739,692,000.00 2016
43 Ukraine 1,386,829,000.00 2015
44 Argentina 1,300,926,000.00 2016
45 Greece 1,189,471,000.00 2016
46 Bulgaria 1,185,954,000.00 2016
47 Saudi Arabia 1,091,511,000.00 2016
48 Croatia 1,055,741,000.00 2016
49 Estonia 978,837,100.00 2016
50 Costa Rica 941,695,600.00 2016
51 Latvia 869,327,000.00 2016
52 Luxembourg 774,006,000.00 2016
53 Colombia 739,660,200.00 2016
54 Tunisia 673,331,100.00 2016
55 Iran 652,571,100.00 2011
56 Chile 620,263,600.00 2016
57 Belarus 605,644,400.00 2016
58 New Zealand 599,181,600.00 2016
59 Morocco 591,547,600.00 2016
60 Malta 578,385,700.00 2016
61 Panama 575,146,500.00 2016
62 United Arab Emirates 429,174,900.00 2016
63 Hong Kong SAR, China 421,781,400.00 2016
64 Serbia 309,381,900.00 2016
65 Pakistan 303,836,900.00 2016
66 Lao PDR 274,940,700.00 2016
67 Myanmar 255,291,500.00 2016
68 Cuba 248,049,500.00 2006
69 Guatemala 243,393,000.00 2016
70 Dominican Republic 212,130,900.00 2016
71 El Salvador 191,387,000.00 2016
72 Peru 164,740,300.00 2016
73 Uruguay 148,687,700.00 2016
74 Iceland 135,960,000.00 2016
75 Oman 124,221,600.00 2016
76 Ecuador 103,936,500.00 2016
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina 93,494,460.00 2016
78 Bangladesh 90,773,160.00 2015
79 Jordan 84,892,000.00 2016
80 Macedonia 77,379,010.00 2016
81 Kuwait 76,277,110.00 2016
82 Brunei 75,036,400.00 2015
83 Kenya 72,063,130.00 2013
84 Kyrgyz Republic 62,949,720.00 2016
85 Sri Lanka 60,235,930.00 2016
86 Paraguay 57,757,830.00 2016
87 Egypt 52,091,850.00 2016
88 Congo 47,798,390.00 2014
89 Cambodia 39,805,150.00 2016
90 Barbados 38,201,400.00 2016
91 Côte d'Ivoire 37,577,570.00 2015
92 Syrian Arab Republic 37,531,370.00 2010
93 Tajikistan 37,103,000.00 2000
94 Zambia 36,503,180.00 2015
95 New Caledonia 36,492,160.00 2015
96 Mongolia 35,160,180.00 2016
97 Honduras 33,022,950.00 2016
98 Lebanon 32,700,730.00 2016
99 Mozambique 31,240,450.00 2015
100 Cyprus 30,454,470.00 2016
101 Ethiopia 29,793,020.00 2016
102 Botswana 27,168,930.00 2016
103 Namibia 23,950,580.00 2016
104 Bahrain 21,343,160.00 2016
105 Armenia 21,142,630.00 2016
106 Georgia 19,807,880.00 2016
107 Venezuela 18,092,980.00 2013
108 Senegal 17,541,320.00 2016
109 Andorra 16,200,930.00 2014
110 Tanzania 15,624,540.00 2016
111 Papua New Guinea 15,582,280.00 2012
112 Bolivia 15,493,720.00 2016
113 Ghana 13,891,550.00 2016
114 Moldova 13,784,220.00 2016
115 Zimbabwe 13,742,970.00 2016
116 Cameroon 13,383,770.00 2015
117 Nicaragua 9,962,232.00 2015
118 Azerbaijan 9,132,464.00 2016
119 Suriname 8,757,852.00 2016
120 Turkmenistan 8,537,831.00 2000
121 Albania 8,424,644.00 2016
122 Uganda 7,556,939.00 2016
123 Nigeria 7,344,207.00 2016
124 Mali 7,294,354.00 2016
125 Gabon 6,724,020.00 2009
126 Trinidad and Tobago 5,169,055.00 2015
127 Burkina Faso 5,010,517.00 2016
128 Rwanda 4,882,829.00 2016
129 Qatar 4,815,196.00 2016
130 Algeria 4,758,110.00 2016
131 Madagascar 4,312,296.00 2016
132 St. Lucia 4,195,717.00 2016
133 Malawi 3,577,452.00 2015
134 Palau 3,499,344.00 2016
135 Fiji 3,035,276.00 2016
136 Yemen 2,946,931.00 2015
137 Vanuatu 2,817,944.00 2011
138 Nepal 2,792,696.00 2015
139 Montenegro 2,778,804.00 2016
140 Guinea 2,448,491.00 2015
141 Jamaica 2,138,184.00 2016
142 Dominica 1,912,206.00 2012
143 Timor-Leste 1,906,777.00 2013
144 Haiti 1,804,714.00 1997
145 Niger 1,624,974.00 2016
146 Grenada 1,387,798.00 2008
147 Benin 1,317,651.00 2016
148 Sudan 978,796.00 2015
149 Swaziland 876,591.00 2007
150 Burundi 762,143.00 2015
151 Seychelles 714,571.00 2016
152 São Tomé and Principe 711,206.00 2016
153 Mauritius 680,372.00 2016
154 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 472,716.00 2015
155 Solomon Islands 439,899.00 2016
156 Greenland 375,799.00 2016
157 Eritrea 312,450.00 2003
158 Belize 268,516.00 2011
159 The Gambia 265,957.00 2016
160 Guyana 145,388.00 2016
161 Samoa 142,982.00 2016
162 Iraq 121,000.00 2011
163 Djibouti 116,611.00 2009
164 Togo 95,982.00 2016
165 Kiribati 84,544.00 2016
166 Bhutan 58,575.00 2012
167 Central African Republic 43,338.00 2016
168 Macao SAR, China 38,253.00 2014
169 St. Kitts and Nevis 36,481.00 2011
170 Tonga 24,663.00 2014
171 Lesotho 18,372.00 2012
172 Guinea-Bissau 4,296.00 2004
173 Tuvalu 3,700.00 2005
174 The Bahamas 3,454.00 2010
175 Comoros 2,591.00 2013
176 Antigua and Barbuda 1,208.00 2007
177 Sierra Leone 1,152.00 2016
178 Cabo Verde 331.00 2014
179 Mauritania 44.00 2016

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Development Relevance: The OECD has developed a four-way classification of exports: high, medium-high, medium-low and low-technology. The classification is based on the importance of expenditures on research and development relative to the gross output and value added of different types of industries that produce goods for export. Examples of high-technology industries are aircraft, computers, and pharmaceuticals; medium-high-technology includes motor vehicles, electrical equipment and most chemicals; medium-low-technology includes rubber, plastics, basic metals and ship construction; low-technology industries include food processing, textiles, clothing and footwear. Industries of high and medium-high-technology intensity account for over two-thirds of total OECD manufacturing exports. Differences among countries are substantial; the share of high and medium-high-technology industries ranges from over 80 percent in Japan and Ireland to less than 10 percent in Iceland. Technology exports have grown rapidly in Iceland, Turkey and the eastern European countries, although most of these countries, with Hungary and the Czech Republic as exceptions, still focus primarily on low and medium-low-technology exports.

Limitations and Exceptions: Because industrial sectors specializing in a few high-technology products may also produce low-technology products, the product approach is more appropriate for international trade. The method takes only R&D intensity into account, but other characteristics of high technology are also important, such as knowhow, scientific personnel, and technology embodied in patents. Considering these characteristics would yield a different list (see Hatzichronoglou 1997).

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The method for determining high-technology exports was developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in collaboration with Eurostat. It takes a "product approach" (rather than a "sectoral approach") based on R&D intensity (expenditure divided by total sales) for groups of products from Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. The original high-tech products classification is based on SITC Rev. 3 and is taken from Table 4 of Annex 2 of the 1997 working paper of Thomas Hatzichronouglou, OECD. The methodology used to determine high-tech exports takes the "product approach" based on R&D intensity on products from Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. High Technology Products List - SITC Rev. 3: 1 Aerospace 7921+7922+7923+7924+7925+79291+79293+(714-71489-71499)+87411 2 Computers-office machines 75113+75131+75132+75134+(752-7529)+75997 3 Electronics-telecommunications 76381+76383+(764-76493-76499) +7722+77261+77318+77625+77627+7763+7764+7768+89879 4 Pharmacy 5413+5415+5416+5421+5422 5 Scientific instruments 774+8711+8713+8714+8719+87211+(874-87411-8742) +88111+88121+88411+88419+89961+89963+89966+89967 6 Electrical machinery 77862+77863+77864+77865+7787+77884 7 Chemistry 52222+52223+52229+52269+525+531+57433+591 8 Non-electrical machinery 71489+71499+71871+71877+71878+72847+7311+73131+73135 +73142+73144+73151+73153+73161+73163+73165 +73312+73314+73316+7359+73733+73735 9 Armament 891 Data are in current U.S. dollars and coming from the UN's Comtrade database.

Aggregation method: Sum

Periodicity: Annual