High-technology exports (current US$) - Country Ranking - Europe

Definition: High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Source: United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Germany 209,610,000,000.00 2018
2 France 117,814,000,000.00 2018
3 Netherlands 85,790,940,000.00 2018
4 United Kingdom 76,533,150,000.00 2018
5 Belgium 36,667,990,000.00 2018
6 Ireland 36,493,800,000.00 2018
7 Czech Republic 36,002,160,000.00 2018
8 Italy 33,820,880,000.00 2018
9 Switzerland 30,136,240,000.00 2018
10 Poland 22,236,770,000.00 2018
11 Hungary 18,033,480,000.00 2018
12 Sweden 17,415,730,000.00 2018
13 Spain 16,982,240,000.00 2018
14 Austria 16,687,500,000.00 2018
15 Denmark 9,569,070,000.00 2018
16 Slovak Republic 8,928,947,000.00 2018
17 Romania 6,637,140,000.00 2018
18 Finland 4,515,415,000.00 2018
19 Norway 4,294,543,000.00 2018
20 Turkey 3,116,828,000.00 2018
21 Portugal 2,978,220,000.00 2018
22 Lithuania 2,516,322,000.00 2018
23 Slovenia 2,089,870,000.00 2018
24 Estonia 2,063,714,000.00 2018
25 Bulgaria 1,956,365,000.00 2018
26 Greece 1,754,802,000.00 2018
27 Latvia 1,747,648,000.00 2018
28 Ukraine 1,247,556,000.00 2018
29 Croatia 1,011,940,000.00 2018
30 Luxembourg 858,270,000.00 2018
31 Malta 766,126,800.00 2018
32 Belarus 716,991,900.00 2018
33 Bosnia and Herzegovina 261,379,300.00 2018
34 North Macedonia 234,170,100.00 2018
35 Iceland 143,430,800.00 2018
36 Cyprus 95,712,380.00 2018
37 Andorra 33,913,480.00 2018
38 Moldova 18,944,090.00 2018
39 Montenegro 4,246,458.00 2018
40 Albania 591,717.00 2018

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Development Relevance: The OECD has developed a four-way classification of exports: high, medium-high, medium-low and low-technology. The classification is based on the importance of expenditures on research and development relative to the gross output and value added of different types of industries that produce goods for export. Examples of high-technology industries are aircraft, computers, and pharmaceuticals; medium-high-technology includes motor vehicles, electrical equipment and most chemicals; medium-low-technology includes rubber, plastics, basic metals and ship construction; low-technology industries include food processing, textiles, clothing and footwear.

Limitations and Exceptions: Because industrial sectors specializing in a few high-technology products may also produce low-technology products, the product approach is more appropriate for international trade. The method takes only R&D intensity into account, but other characteristics of high technology are also important, such as knowhow, scientific personnel, and technology embodied in patents. Considering these characteristics would yield a different list (see Hatzichronoglou 1997). The indicator is based on data reported by countries to COMTRADE. The export values presented in the World Development Indicators represent Gross Exports less Re-Exports. The values may be impacted in cases of reporting errors or missing data, for example if countries do not report Re-Exports for one or more periods.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: High technology products are defined according to SITC Rev.4 as the sum of the following products: Aerospace, Computers-office machines, Electronics-telecommunications, Pharmacy, Scientific instruments, Electrical machinery, Chemistry, Non-electrical machinery, Armament. The following product codes are used: Aerospace: (714 – 71489 -71499)+7921+7922+7924+7925+79291+79293+87411; Computers-office machines: 75194+75195+752+75997; Electronics-communication: 76331+7638+(764-76493-76499)+7722+77261+77318+77625+77627+7763+7764+7768+89844+89846; Pharmacy: 5413+5415+5416+5421+5422; Scientific instruments: 774+871+87211+(874-87411-8742)+88111+88121+88411+88419+(8996-89965-89969); Electrical machinery: (7786-77861-777866-77869)+7787+77884; Chemistry: 52222+52223+52229+52269+525+531+57433+591; Non-electrical machinery: 71489+71499+7187+72847+7311+73131+73135+73142+73144+73151+73153+73161+73163+73165+73312+73314+73316+7359+73733+73735; Armament: 891 The list can also be accessed on the Eurostat website. This list, based on the OECD definition, contains technical products of which the manufacturing involved a high intensity of R&D. The original high-tech products classification is based on SITC Rev. 3 and is taken from Table 4 of Annex 2 of the 1997 working paper of Thomas Hatzichronouglou, OECD. In September 2019 the definition in the World Development Indicators database was updated to SITC Rev.4 from SITC Rev. 3. The data are in current U.S. dollars and are sourced from the UN's Comtrade database.

Aggregation method: Sum

Periodicity: Annual