Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Vulnerable employment is contributing family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment.

Source: Derived using data from International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Burundi 91.99 2019
2 Central African Republic 90.61 2019
3 Chad 88.20 2019
4 Niger 87.30 2019
5 Afghanistan 85.84 2019
6 Mali 85.28 2019
7 Guinea 83.60 2019
8 Burkina Faso 83.40 2019
9 Ethiopia 82.62 2019
10 Haiti 82.58 2019
11 Benin 81.59 2019
12 Madagascar 80.89 2019
13 Sierra Leone 80.20 2019
14 Tanzania 77.13 2019
15 Solomon Islands 76.46 2019
16 India 75.27 2019
17 Somalia 74.87 2019
18 Lao PDR 73.50 2019
19 Nigeria 72.54 2019
20 Mozambique 72.49 2019
21 Guinea-Bissau 70.60 2019
22 Eritrea 70.41 2019
23 Papua New Guinea 69.50 2019
24 Dem. Rep. Congo 69.37 2019
25 Togo 69.37 2019
26 Zambia 68.18 2019
27 Uganda 67.93 2019
28 Liberia 67.41 2019
29 Nepal 67.38 2019
30 Timor-Leste 67.33 2019
31 Vanuatu 67.19 2019
32 Cameroon 64.86 2019
33 The Gambia 63.88 2019
34 Congo 63.67 2019
35 Côte d'Ivoire 63.38 2019
36 Bhutan 62.36 2019
37 Lesotho 60.91 2019
38 Ghana 59.93 2019
39 Senegal 59.74 2019
40 Rwanda 58.22 2019
41 Myanmar 57.92 2019
42 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 56.37 2019
43 Zimbabwe 56.18 2019
44 Comoros 54.68 2019
45 Pakistan 54.62 2019
46 Albania 54.44 2019
47 Malawi 53.74 2019
48 Bolivia 53.73 2019
49 Angola 53.44 2019
50 Guyana 52.84 2019
51 Mongolia 51.51 2019
52 Tonga 50.34 2019
53 Bangladesh 49.90 2019
54 Georgia 48.55 2019
55 Vietnam 48.45 2019
56 Azerbaijan 48.33 2019
57 Tajikistan 48.25 2019
58 Equatorial Guinea 47.71 2019
59 Dominican Republic 47.63 2019
60 Colombia 47.03 2019
61 Thailand 45.63 2019
62 Mauritania 45.63 2019
63 Peru 44.84 2019
64 Cambodia 44.61 2019
65 Morocco 44.04 2019
66 Yemen 43.89 2019
67 São Tomé and Principe 42.44 2019
68 Indonesia 41.33 2019
69 China 40.96 2019
70 Iran 40.82 2019
71 Fiji 40.32 2019
72 Armenia 40.24 2019
73 Djibouti 40.16 2019
74 Jamaica 39.74 2019
75 Kenya 39.05 2019
76 Uzbekistan 39.03 2019
77 Ecuador 38.67 2019
78 Sudan 38.42 2019
79 Moldova 38.33 2019
80 Kyrgyz Republic 37.60 2019
81 Syrian Arab Republic 36.74 2019
82 Sri Lanka 36.60 2019
83 Paraguay 35.59 2019
84 Nicaragua 34.47 2019
85 Honduras 33.44 2019
86 Panama 33.26 2019
87 Venezuela 32.44 2019
88 St. Lucia 32.03 2019
89 Lebanon 31.38 2019
90 Philippines 31.11 2019
91 Brazil 30.63 2019
92 Samoa 30.46 2019
93 El Salvador 29.73 2019
94 Serbia 29.30 2019
95 Guatemala 29.11 2019
96 Greece 28.22 2019
97 Eswatini 27.46 2019
98 Algeria 27.19 2019
99 Gabon 27.05 2019
100 Cabo Verde 26.58 2019
101 Kazakhstan 26.52 2019
102 Romania 26.20 2019
103 Belize 25.98 2019
104 Uruguay 25.70 2019
105 Mexico 25.41 2019
106 Turkmenistan 24.87 2019
107 Turkey 24.80 2019
108 Korea 24.62 2019
109 Iraq 24.35 2019
110 Chile 23.33 2019
111 Argentina 23.23 2019
112 Botswana 22.56 2019
113 Tunisia 22.22 2019
114 Trinidad and Tobago 21.91 2019
115 Costa Rica 20.93 2019
116 North Macedonia 20.49 2019
117 Barbados 20.27 2019
118 Malaysia 19.98 2019
119 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 19.67 2019
120 Italy 19.67 2019
121 Poland 18.46 2019
122 Namibia 18.24 2019
123 Bosnia and Herzegovina 18.16 2019
124 Mauritius 18.14 2019
125 Egypt 17.77 2019
126 Puerto Rico 17.39 2019
127 Ukraine 16.55 2019
128 Czech Republic 15.98 2019
129 Montenegro 15.93 2019
130 United Kingdom 15.86 2019
131 Ireland 15.37 2019
132 Slovak Republic 14.79 2019
133 Portugal 14.54 2019
134 New Caledonia 14.42 2019
135 Netherlands 14.16 2019
136 New Zealand 13.67 2019
137 Spain 13.47 2019
138 Suriname 13.37 2019
139 The Bahamas 12.84 2019
140 Australia 12.80 2019
141 Cyprus 12.70 2019
142 Malta 12.38 2019
143 Singapore 12.30 2019
144 Canada 12.04 2019
145 Belgium 11.92 2019
146 Slovenia 11.78 2019
147 Finland 11.21 2019
148 Lithuania 11.11 2019
149 Iceland 9.92 2019
150 Jordan 9.89 2019
151 Bulgaria 9.43 2019
152 South Africa 9.36 2019
153 Israel 9.03 2019
154 Cuba 8.82 2019
155 Switzerland 8.61 2019
156 Japan 8.60 2019
157 Latvia 8.55 2019
158 France 8.47 2019
159 Croatia 8.25 2019
160 Austria 8.09 2019
161 Sweden 8.02 2019
162 Hong Kong SAR, China 7.62 2019
163 Estonia 6.97 2019
164 Germany 6.42 2019
165 Denmark 6.29 2019
166 Libya 6.09 2019
167 Norway 6.03 2019
168 Hungary 6.02 2019
169 Luxembourg 5.88 2019
170 Russia 5.84 2019
171 Brunei 5.67 2019
172 Belarus 4.65 2019
173 Macao SAR, China 4.41 2019
174 United States 4.07 2019
175 Saudi Arabia 3.26 2019
176 Oman 2.43 2019
177 Kuwait 1.52 2019
178 Bahrain 1.09 2019
179 United Arab Emirates 0.66 2019
180 Qatar 0.15 2019

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Development Relevance: Breaking down employment information by status in employment provides a statistical basis for describing workers' behaviour and conditions of work, and for defining an individual's socio-economic group. A high proportion of wage and salaried workers in a country can signify advanced economic development. If the proportion of own-account workers (self-employed without hired employees) is sizeable, it may be an indication of a large agriculture sector and low growth in the formal economy. A high proportion of contributing family workers — generally unpaid, although compensation might come indirectly in the form of family income — may indicate weak development, little job growth, and often a large rural economy. Each status group faces different economic risks, and contributing family workers and own-account workers are the most vulnerable - and therefore the most likely to fall into poverty. They are the least likely to have formal work arrangements, are the least likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against economic shocks, and often are incapable of generating sufficient savings to offset these shocks.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. Due to differences in definitions and coverage across countries, there are limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Estimates of women in employment are not comparable internationally, reflecting that demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether women's activities are regarded as economic.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The indicator of status in employment distinguishes between two categories of the total employed. These are: (a) wage and salaried workers (also known as employees); and (b) self-employed workers. Self-employed group is broken down in the subcategories: self-employed workers with employees (employers), self-employed workers without employees (own-account workers), members of producers' cooperatives and contributing family workers (also known as unpaid family workers). Vulnerable employment refers to the sum of contributing family workers and own-account workers. Data are derived using ILO modeled estimate series which are harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual