Gross capital formation (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.

Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Nepal 55.18 2018
2 Bhutan 51.26 2017
3 Mozambique 49.03 2018
4 Djibouti 48.31 2018
5 Mauritania 47.69 2018
6 Turkmenistan 47.20 2012
7 Algeria 47.11 2018
8 China 44.06 2018
9 Mongolia 43.09 2018
10 Qatar 42.86 2018
11 Panama 41.71 2017
12 Brunei 41.07 2018
13 Cabo Verde 40.44 2018
14 Uzbekistan 40.18 2018
15 Kiribati 40.00 1992
16 Zambia 38.21 2016
17 Guyana 37.46 2018
18 Niger 37.10 2018
19 Suriname 36.20 2010
20 Kyrgyz Republic 35.38 2018
21 Iran 34.74 2017
22 Indonesia 34.57 2018
23 Ethiopia 34.13 2018
24 Tanzania 34.02 2017
25 Morocco 33.52 2018
26 Tonga 33.38 2012
27 North Macedonia 32.99 2018
28 Myanmar 32.76 2017
29 Seychelles 32.54 2018
30 Montenegro 31.91 2018
31 Bahrain 31.90 2018
32 New Caledonia 31.40 1990
33 India 31.31 2018
34 Bangladesh 31.23 2018
35 Korea 30.18 2018
36 Libya 29.83 2008
37 Turkey 29.58 2018
38 Botswana 29.51 2018
39 Lao PDR 29.01 2016
40 Haiti 29.01 2018
41 Senegal 28.72 2018
42 Sri Lanka 28.58 2018
43 Georgia 28.12 2018
44 Syrian Arab Republic 27.80 2007
45 Belarus 27.50 2018
46 Norway 27.34 2018
47 Hungary 27.23 2018
48 Tajikistan 27.19 2017
49 Philippines 26.94 2018
50 Sweden 26.82 2018
51 Palau 26.66 2018
52 Singapore 26.61 2018
53 Vietnam 26.53 2018
54 Vanuatu 26.43 2014
55 Estonia 26.22 2018
56 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 26.19 2017
57 Czech Republic 26.17 2018
58 Ecuador 25.95 2018
59 Central African Republic 25.90 2018
60 Dem. Rep. Congo 25.83 2018
61 Dominican Republic 25.80 2018
62 Benin 25.77 2018
63 Moldova 25.62 2018
64 Honduras 25.52 2018
65 Belgium 25.49 2018
66 Togo 25.35 2018
67 Kuwait 25.21 2018
68 Austria 25.11 2018
69 Albania 25.05 2017
70 Thailand 25.01 2018
71 Uganda 24.99 2018
72 Finland 24.91 2018
73 Burkina Faso 24.73 2018
74 The Bahamas 24.52 2018
75 Australia 24.49 2018
76 Japan 24.41 2018
77 Rwanda 24.36 2018
78 Saudi Arabia 24.23 2018
79 Romania 24.16 2018
80 Angola 24.13 2017
81 New Zealand 23.87 2018
82 Greenland 23.85 2018
83 Kazakhstan 23.84 2018
84 Ireland 23.78 2018
85 Malaysia 23.61 2018
86 Latvia 23.50 2018
87 France 23.46 2018
88 Cambodia 23.45 2018
89 Slovak Republic 23.43 2018
90 Jamaica 23.34 2018
91 Oman 23.19 2018
92 Croatia 23.12 2018
93 Canada 23.11 2018
94 Denmark 22.96 2018
95 Nicaragua 22.95 2018
96 Cameroon 22.80 2018
97 Mexico 22.75 2018
98 Russia 22.73 2018
99 Chile 22.71 2018
100 Switzerland 22.70 2018
101 Serbia 22.67 2018
102 Iceland 22.62 2018
103 Timor-Leste 22.49 2017
104 Paraguay 22.44 2018
105 United Arab Emirates 22.44 2018
106 Armenia 22.40 2018
107 Lesotho 22.04 2018
108 Israel 21.80 2018
109 Germany 21.80 2018
110 Gabon 21.78 2018
111 Hong Kong SAR, China 21.72 2018
112 Bulgaria 21.62 2018
113 St. Lucia 21.61 2016
114 Peru 21.30 2018
115 Colombia 21.21 2018
116 Slovenia 21.09 2018
117 United States 21.01 2018
118 Argentina 20.97 2018
119 Bosnia and Herzegovina 20.91 2018
120 Poland 20.70 2018
121 Netherlands 20.66 2018
122 Bolivia 20.60 2018
123 El Salvador 20.44 2018
124 Spain 20.38 2018
125 Mali 20.28 2018
126 Azerbaijan 20.08 2018
127 Papua New Guinea 20.00 2004
128 Nigeria 19.81 2018
129 Lithuania 19.80 2018
130 Côte d'Ivoire 19.75 2018
131 Chad 19.74 2018
132 Madagascar 19.61 2018
133 Lebanon 19.50 2018
134 Tunisia 19.31 2017
135 Sudan 19.27 2018
136 Afghanistan 19.17 2017
137 Cyprus 19.13 2018
138 Mauritius 19.12 2018
139 Malta 19.09 2018
140 Costa Rica 18.98 2018
141 Belize 18.96 2018
142 Guinea 18.93 2018
143 Ukraine 18.77 2018
144 Kenya 18.44 2018
145 Jordan 18.44 2018
146 Italy 18.16 2018
147 Congo 18.15 2018
148 Portugal 18.13 2018
149 South Africa 17.94 2018
150 Luxembourg 17.56 2018
151 United Kingdom 17.27 2018
152 Macao SAR, China 17.18 2018
153 The Gambia 16.97 2018
154 Pakistan 16.74 2018
155 Egypt 16.66 2018
156 Uruguay 16.55 2018
157 Somalia 15.50 1990
158 Equatorial Guinea 15.46 2018
159 Brazil 15.42 2018
160 Comoros 14.97 2018
161 Ghana 14.86 2018
162 Solomon Islands 14.60 2006
163 Sierra Leone 13.56 2018
164 Malawi 13.43 2017
165 Greece 13.11 2018
166 Eswatini 13.06 2018
167 Liberia 12.93 2018
168 Iraq 12.87 2018
169 Namibia 12.57 2018
170 Zimbabwe 12.56 2018
171 Guatemala 12.08 2018
172 Cuba 12.04 2018
173 Barbados 11.26 2018
174 Burundi 11.10 2018
175 Guinea-Bissau 10.89 2018
176 Eritrea 10.00 2011
177 Puerto Rico 8.82 2018
178 Venezuela -3.74 2017

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Limitations and Exceptions: Because policymakers have tended to focus on fostering the growth of output, and because data on production are easier to collect than data on spending, many countries generate their primary estimate of GDP using the production approach. Moreover, many countries do not estimate all the components of national expenditures but instead derive some of the main aggregates indirectly using GDP (based on the production approach) as the control total. Data on capital formation may be estimated from direct surveys of enterprises and administrative records or based on the commodity flow method using data from production, trade, and construction activities. The quality of data on government fixed capital formation depends on the quality of government accounting systems (which tend to be weak in developing countries). Measures of fixed capital formation by households and corporations - particularly capital outlays by small, unincorporated enterprises - are usually unreliable. Estimates of changes in inventories are rarely complete but usually include the most important activities or commodities. In some countries these estimates are derived as a composite residual along with household final consumption expenditure. According to national accounts conventions, adjustments should be made for appreciation of the value of inventory holdings due to price changes, but this is not always done. In highly inflationary economies this element can be substantial.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Gross domestic product (GDP) from the expenditure side is made up of household final consumption expenditure, general government final consumption expenditure, gross capital formation (private and public investment in fixed assets, changes in inventories, and net acquisitions of valuables), and net exports (exports minus imports) of goods and services. Such expenditures are recorded in purchaser prices and include net taxes on products.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual