Labor force participation rate, total (% of total population ages 15+) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking - Europe

Definition: Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Early release of the 2017 ILO Labour Force Estimates and Projections, retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Iceland 77.31 2017
2 Switzerland 68.42 2017
3 Norway 64.23 2017
4 Sweden 64.04 2017
5 Belarus 64.01 2017
6 Netherlands 63.52 2017
7 Denmark 63.14 2017
8 Cyprus 62.79 2017
9 Estonia 62.75 2017
10 United Kingdom 62.34 2017
11 Latvia 60.62 2017
12 Lithuania 60.55 2017
13 Germany 60.48 2017
14 Austria 60.33 2017
15 Ireland 59.99 2017
16 Czech Republic 59.93 2017
17 Slovak Republic 59.79 2017
18 Finland 58.27 2017
19 Portugal 58.20 2017
20 Luxembourg 57.88 2017
21 Spain 57.81 2017
22 Poland 56.58 2017
23 Slovenia 56.26 2017
24 Albania 56.07 2017
25 Hungary 55.56 2017
26 France 55.21 2017
27 Macedonia 54.96 2017
28 Malta 54.45 2017
29 Ukraine 54.20 2017
30 Serbia 53.50 2017
31 Bulgaria 53.44 2017
32 Romania 53.22 2017
33 Belgium 53.15 2017
34 Greece 52.87 2017
35 Turkey 51.62 2017
36 Croatia 51.30 2017
37 Italy 48.62 2017
38 Montenegro 48.44 2017
39 Bosnia and Herzegovina 46.60 2017
40 Moldova 42.45 2017

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Development Relevance: Estimates of women in the labor force and employment are generally lower than those of men and are not comparable internationally, reflecting that demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether women's activities are regarded as economic. In many low-income countries women often work on farms or in other family enterprises without pay, and others work in or near their homes, mixing work and family activities during the day. In many high-income economies, women have been increasingly acquiring higher education that has led to better-compensated, longer-term careers rather than lower-skilled, shorter-term jobs. However, access to good- paying occupations for women remains unequal in many occupations and countries around the world. Labor force statistics by gender is important to monitor gender disparities in employment and unemployment patterns.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on the labor force are compiled by the ILO from labor force surveys, censuses, and establishment censuses and surveys. For some countries a combination of these sources is used. Labor force surveys are the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable labor force data. They can cover all non-institutionalized civilians, all branches and sectors of the economy, and all categories of workers, including people holding multiple jobs. By contrast, labor force data from population censuses are often based on a limited number of questions on the economic characteristics of individuals, with little scope to probe. The resulting data often differ from labor force survey data and vary considerably by country, depending on the census scope and coverage. Establishment censuses and surveys provide data only on the employed population, not unemployed workers, workers in small establishments, or workers in the informal sector. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. In countries, where the household is the basic unit of production and all members contribute to output, but some at low intensity or irregularly, the estimated labor force may be much smaller than the numbers actually working. Differing definitions of employment age also affect comparability. For most countries the working age is 15 and older, but in some countries children younger than 15 work full- or part-time and are included in the estimates. Similarly, some countries have an upper age limit. As a result, calculations may systematically over- or underestimate actual rates.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The labor force is the supply of labor available for producing goods and services in an economy. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are often omitted, and some countries do not count members of the armed forces. Labor force size tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Data up to 2016 are estimates while data from 2017 are projections. National estimates are also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.