Child employment in services, female (% of female economically active children ages 7-14) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment by economic activity refers to the distribution of economically active children by the major industrial categories of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2), categories G-P (ISIC revision 3), or categories G-U (ISIC revision 4). Services include wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, transport, financial intermediation, real estate, public administration, education, health and social work, other community services, and private household activity. Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.

Source: Understanding Children's Work project based on data from ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Niger 91.80 2009
2 Dominican Republic 87.74 2012
3 Venezuela 81.15 2013
4 Costa Rica 79.84 2016
5 Uruguay 78.04 2009
6 Mexico 74.15 2013
7 Jamaica 71.32 2002
8 Honduras 65.82 2014
9 Chile 65.59 2012
10 El Salvador 65.57 2013
11 Tajikistan 64.71 1999
12 Paraguay 58.57 2014
13 Colombia 55.30 2015
14 Philippines 54.65 2011
15 Guatemala 51.48 2015
16 Nicaragua 50.38 2012
17 Jordan 47.83 2016
18 Portugal 47.67 2001
19 Brazil 46.26 2015
20 Yemen 38.51 2010
21 Burkina Faso 37.71 2006
22 Indonesia 37.32 2010
23 Togo 33.64 2010
24 Peru 32.78 2007
25 Morocco 32.32 2004
26 Malawi 31.90 2015
27 Egypt 28.18 2009
28 Sudan 27.12 2008
29 Bangladesh 26.43 2013
30 Mali 26.14 2007
31 Kenya 25.26 1999
32 Cambodia 24.96 2012
33 Ghana 24.71 2012
34 Panama 24.09 2014
35 Rwanda 21.91 2014
35 Liberia 21.91 2010
37 Bolivia 21.80 2015
38 Guinea 21.28 2010
39 Vietnam 18.39 2012
40 Sri Lanka 16.95 2009
41 Sierra Leone 15.61 2007
42 Ecuador 14.92 2015
43 Nigeria 14.90 2010
44 Pakistan 11.93 2011
45 Mongolia 11.91 2012
46 Turkey 11.58 2006
47 Albania 11.01 2010
48 Madagascar 10.54 2007
49 Cameroon 9.08 2007
50 Zambia 8.63 2008
51 Namibia 7.98 1999
52 Azerbaijan 7.50 2005
53 Tanzania 6.49 2014
54 Ethiopia 5.60 2005
55 Senegal 4.55 2011
56 India 4.19 2012
57 Lao PDR 2.91 2010
58 Uganda 2.69 2012
59 The Gambia 2.63 2015
60 Nepal 2.19 2008
61 Romania 1.88 2000
62 Moldova 1.75 2009
63 Kyrgyz Republic 1.50 2014
64 Timor-Leste 0.66 2007

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Development Relevance: In most countries more boys are involved in employment, or the gender difference is small. However, girls are often more present in hidden or underreported forms of employment such as domestic service, and in almost all societies girls bear greater responsibility for household chores in their own homes, work that lies outside the System of National Accounts production boundary and is thus not considered in estimates of children's employment.

Limitations and Exceptions: Although efforts are made to harmonize the definition of employment and the questions on employment in survey questionnaires, significant differences remain in the survey instruments that collect data on children in employment and in the sampling design underlying the surveys. Differences exist not only across different household surveys in the same country but also across the same type of survey carried out in different countries, so estimates of working children are not fully comparable across countries. In addition, the shares of three sectors (Agriculture, Manufacturing and Services) may not add up to 100 percent because of a residual category not included.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data are from household surveys by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and national statistical offices. The surveys yield data on education, employment, health, expenditure, and consumption indicators related to children's work. Since children's work is captured in the sense of "economic activity," the data refer to children in employment, a broader concept than child labor (see ILO 2009a for details on this distinction). Household survey data generally include information on work type - for example, whether a child is working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in unpaid work, working for someone who is not a member of the household, or involved in any type of family work (on the farm or in a business).

Periodicity: Annual