Child employment in services, female (% of female economically active children ages 7-14)
Definition: Employment by economic activity refers to the distribution of economically active children by the major industrial categories of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2), categories G-P (ISIC revision 3), or categories G-U (ISIC revision 4). Services include wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, transport, financial intermediation, real estate, public administration, education, health and social work, other community services, and private household activity. Economically active children refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey.
Description: The map below shows how Child employment in services, female (% of female economically active children ages 7-14) varies by country. The shade of the country corresponds to the magnitude of the indicator. The darker the shade, the higher the value. The country with the highest value in the world is Niger, with a value of 91.80. The country with the lowest value in the world is Timor-Leste, with a value of 0.66.
Source: Understanding Children's Work project based on data from ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank.
Development Relevance: In most countries more boys are involved in employment, or the gender difference is small. However, girls are often more present in hidden or underreported forms of employment such as domestic service, and in almost all societies girls bear greater responsibility for household chores in their own homes, work that lies outside the System of National Accounts production boundary and is thus not considered in estimates of children's employment.
Limitations and Exceptions: Although efforts are made to harmonize the definition of employment and the questions on employment in survey questionnaires, significant differences remain in the survey instruments that collect data on children in employment and in the sampling design underlying the surveys. Differences exist not only across different household surveys in the same country but also across the same type of survey carried out in different countries, so estimates of working children are not fully comparable across countries. In addition, the shares of three sectors (Agriculture, Manufacturing and Services) may not add up to 100 percent because of a residual category not included.
Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data are from household surveys by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and national statistical offices. The surveys yield data on education, employment, health, expenditure, and consumption indicators related to children's work. Since children's work is captured in the sense of "economic activity," the data refer to children in employment, a broader concept than child labor (see ILO 2009a for details on this distinction). Household survey data generally include information on work type - for example, whether a child is working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in unpaid work, working for someone who is not a member of the household, or involved in any type of family work (on the farm or in a business).