Wage and salaried workers, total (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as "paid employment jobs," where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Qatar 99.59 2019
2 Kuwait 98.27 2019
3 Bahrain 97.24 2019
4 United Arab Emirates 96.57 2019
5 Oman 96.17 2019
6 Belarus 95.65 2019
7 Saudi Arabia 95.18 2019
8 United States 93.83 2019
9 Macao SAR, China 93.79 2019
10 Norway 93.50 2019
11 Russia 93.43 2019
12 Libya 93.40 2019
13 Denmark 91.80 2019
14 Hong Kong SAR, China 91.35 2019
15 Brunei 91.30 2019
16 Cuba 90.76 2019
17 Luxembourg 90.35 2019
18 Sweden 90.20 2019
19 Estonia 89.92 2019
20 Germany 89.85 2019
21 Hungary 89.68 2019
22 Japan 89.67 2019
23 France 88.42 2019
24 Iceland 88.23 2019
25 Bulgaria 88.13 2019
26 Lithuania 88.09 2019
27 Israel 87.76 2019
28 Austria 87.75 2019
29 Croatia 87.63 2019
30 Latvia 87.47 2019
31 Finland 86.88 2019
32 Cyprus 86.76 2019
33 Suriname 85.97 2019
34 Slovenia 85.76 2019
35 Belgium 85.75 2019
36 The Bahamas 85.59 2019
37 Jordan 85.58 2019
38 Malta 85.55 2019
39 Singapore 85.47 2019
40 Switzerland 85.25 2019
41 Slovak Republic 84.91 2019
42 South Africa 84.83 2019
43 Canada 84.79 2019
44 Ireland 84.79 2019
45 United Kingdom 84.75 2019
46 Ukraine 84.32 2019
47 Spain 83.57 2019
48 Netherlands 83.49 2019
49 Barbados 83.41 2019
50 Australia 83.14 2019
51 Puerto Rico 83.11 2019
52 New Caledonia 83.11 2019
53 Czech Republic 83.04 2019
54 Portugal 83.02 2019
55 New Zealand 81.54 2019
56 Poland 79.82 2019
57 Mauritius 79.47 2019
58 Montenegro 78.24 2019
59 Italy 76.89 2019
60 Trinidad and Tobago 76.62 2019
61 North Macedonia 76.48 2019
62 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 76.28 2019
63 Costa Rica 75.94 2019
64 Bosnia and Herzegovina 75.65 2019
65 Malaysia 74.92 2019
66 Korea 74.86 2019
67 Argentina 74.69 2019
68 Turkmenistan 74.69 2019
69 Romania 73.79 2019
70 Kazakhstan 72.74 2019
71 Tunisia 72.35 2019
72 Botswana 72.16 2019
73 Uruguay 72.10 2019
74 Chile 71.58 2019
75 Namibia 70.92 2019
76 Iraq 70.82 2019
77 Serbia 69.67 2019
78 Algeria 69.08 2019
79 Mexico 68.68 2019
80 Egypt 68.34 2019
81 Brazil 67.83 2019
82 Turkey 67.62 2019
83 Cabo Verde 66.56 2019
84 Belize 66.21 2019
85 Greece 66.14 2019
86 Gabon 66.10 2019
87 Moldova 65.62 2019
88 Panama 65.41 2019
89 Eswatini 65.01 2019
90 St. Lucia 64.92 2019
91 Kyrgyz Republic 64.69 2019
92 Samoa 64.14 2019
93 Venezuela 63.53 2019
94 Lebanon 63.17 2019
95 Philippines 62.68 2019
96 Guatemala 62.66 2019
97 Syrian Arab Republic 60.99 2019
98 Jamaica 60.79 2019
99 El Salvador 60.25 2019
100 Armenia 59.02 2019
101 Uzbekistan 58.60 2019
102 Sri Lanka 58.49 2019
103 Dominican Republic 56.59 2019
104 Paraguay 56.34 2019
105 Fiji 55.92 2019
106 Nicaragua 55.48 2019
107 Iran 55.15 2019
108 Tajikistan 54.65 2019
109 Sudan 54.16 2019
110 China 53.64 2019
111 São Tomé and Principe 51.84 2019
112 Ecuador 51.06 2019
113 Djibouti 50.76 2019
114 Mongolia 50.38 2019
115 Thailand 50.18 2019
116 Indonesia 49.85 2019
117 Colombia 49.27 2019
118 Cambodia 49.26 2019
119 Georgia 49.13 2019
120 Morocco 49.02 2019
121 Honduras 48.11 2019
122 Yemen 47.30 2019
123 Tonga 45.75 2019
124 Peru 45.35 2019
125 Lesotho 44.85 2019
126 Mauritania 44.83 2019
127 Vietnam 43.95 2019
128 Albania 43.28 2019
129 Equatorial Guinea 42.33 2019
130 Bangladesh 40.66 2019
131 Pakistan 39.79 2019
132 Guyana 39.65 2019
133 Malawi 39.49 2019
134 Kenya 38.92 2019
135 Myanmar 38.22 2019
136 Bolivia 37.86 2019
137 Senegal 34.35 2019
138 Zimbabwe 33.85 2019
139 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 33.27 2019
140 Azerbaijan 31.94 2019
141 Rwanda 31.48 2019
142 Comoros 30.37 2019
143 Bhutan 28.99 2019
144 Angola 28.73 2019
145 Vanuatu 27.88 2019
146 Timor-Leste 27.27 2019
147 The Gambia 26.40 2019
148 Côte d'Ivoire 25.98 2019
149 Ghana 25.81 2019
150 Cameroon 23.34 2019
151 Zambia 22.17 2019
152 India 22.12 2019
153 Uganda 21.92 2019
154 Congo 21.89 2019
155 Togo 21.31 2019
156 Eritrea 20.86 2019
157 Guinea-Bissau 20.73 2019
158 Somalia 20.68 2019
159 Liberia 20.40 2019
160 Papua New Guinea 20.08 2019
161 Lao PDR 19.99 2019
162 Nepal 19.84 2019
163 Nigeria 18.71 2019
164 Solomon Islands 18.65 2019
165 Dem. Rep. Congo 18.45 2019
166 Tanzania 14.85 2019
167 Mozambique 14.68 2019
168 Haiti 13.86 2019
169 Ethiopia 13.80 2019
170 Burkina Faso 13.09 2019
171 Sierra Leone 11.25 2019
172 Madagascar 11.07 2019
173 Benin 10.88 2019
174 Afghanistan 10.22 2019
175 Niger 10.12 2019
176 Mali 9.97 2019
177 Guinea 8.47 2019
178 Chad 6.73 2019
179 Central African Republic 5.46 2019
180 Burundi 5.27 2019

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Development Relevance: Breaking down employment information by status in employment provides a statistical basis for describing workers' behaviour and conditions of work, and for defining an individual's socio-economic group. A high proportion of wage and salaried workers in a country can signify advanced economic development. If the proportion of own-account workers (self-employed without hired employees) is sizeable, it may be an indication of a large agriculture sector and low growth in the formal economy. A high proportion of contributing family workers — generally unpaid, although compensation might come indirectly in the form of family income — may indicate weak development, little job growth, and often a large rural economy. Each status group faces different economic risks, and contributing family workers and own-account workers are the most vulnerable - and therefore the most likely to fall into poverty. They are the least likely to have formal work arrangements, are the least likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against economic shocks, and often are incapable of generating sufficient savings to offset these shocks.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. Due to differences in definitions and coverage across countries, there are limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Estimates of women in employment are not comparable internationally, reflecting that demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether women's activities are regarded as economic.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The indicator of status in employment distinguishes between two categories of the total employed. These are: (a) wage and salaried workers (also known as employees); and (b) self-employed workers. Self-employed group is broken down in the subcategories: self-employed workers with employees (employers), self-employed workers without employees (own-account workers), members of producers' cooperatives and contributing family workers (also known as unpaid family workers). Vulnerable employment refers to the sum of contributing family workers and own-account workers. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual