Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in December 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Qatar 87.95 2018
2 Solomon Islands 85.36 2013
3 Madagascar 84.84 2015
4 Tanzania 82.18 2014
5 Cambodia 81.15 2016
6 Zimbabwe 80.49 2014
7 Iceland 79.63 2018
8 Ethiopia 79.41 2013
9 Cayman Islands 79.28 2015
10 United Arab Emirates 79.20 2018
11 Burundi 77.76 2017
12 Grenada 77.10 2015
13 Mozambique 76.34 2015
14 Vietnam 74.74 2018
15 Liberia 74.57 2016
16 Niger 73.18 2014
17 Kenya 72.35 2016
18 Kuwait 72.24 2016
19 Bahrain 70.93 2015
19 Macao SAR, China 70.93 2016
21 San Marino 70.63 2016
22 Cuba 70.50 2013
23 Benin 69.98 2011
24 Nigeria 69.93 2017
25 Chad 69.90 1993
26 Cameroon 69.55 2014
27 Bolivia 69.27 2018
28 Sweden 68.54 2018
29 New Zealand 67.69 2018
30 China 67.66 2018
31 Belarus 67.50 2018
32 Uzbekistan 67.40 2018
33 Paraguay 67.40 2018
34 Thailand 67.28 2018
35 Kazakhstan 66.63 2017
36 Oman 66.59 2018
37 Malaysia 66.37 2018
38 Seychelles 66.25 2018
39 Vanuatu 66.03 2009
40 Antigua and Barbuda 65.76 2001
41 Peru 65.53 2018
42 St. Kitts and Nevis 65.26 2001
43 Switzerland 65.26 2018
44 Singapore 65.08 2018
45 Indonesia 64.66 2018
46 Ecuador 64.31 2018
47 The Bahamas 64.05 2012
48 Timor-Leste 63.94 2016
49 Palau 63.53 2014
50 Dem. Rep. Congo 63.06 2012
51 Azerbaijan 63.00 2018
52 Honduras 62.74 2018
53 Mali 62.72 2018
54 Colombia 62.16 2018
55 Australia 62.15 2018
56 Nicaragua 62.03 2014
57 Netherlands 61.82 2018
58 Norway 61.68 2018
59 Bhutan 61.60 2015
60 Canada 61.60 2018
61 Guinea 61.49 2002
62 Panama 61.46 2018
63 Burkina Faso 61.37 2014
64 Israel 61.37 2018
65 Myanmar 60.97 2018
66 Korea 60.94 2018
67 United Kingdom 60.56 2018
68 United States 60.42 2018
69 Estonia 60.38 2018
70 Japan 60.03 2018
71 Greenland 60.00 2015
72 Barbados 59.93 2016
73 Russia 59.82 2018
74 Belize 59.81 2017
75 Venezuela 59.57 2013
76 Nauru 59.57 2013
77 Guatemala 59.44 2017
78 Denmark 59.38 2018
79 Germany 59.21 2018
80 Czech Republic 59.20 2018
81 Liechtenstein 59.10 2017
82 Hong Kong SAR, China 58.98 2016
83 Dominican Republic 58.73 2017
84 Ireland 58.60 2018
85 Austria 58.39 2018
86 Uruguay 58.37 2018
87 Jamaica 58.21 2018
88 Malta 57.88 2018
89 Lithuania 57.76 2018
90 Philippines 57.60 2018
91 Mexico 57.60 2018
92 El Salvador 57.43 2018
93 Trinidad and Tobago 57.37 2016
94 St. Lucia 57.35 2016
95 Cyprus 57.17 2018
96 Ukraine 57.08 2018
97 Latvia 56.89 2018
98 Brunei 56.88 2017
99 Luxembourg 56.54 2018
100 Mongolia 56.28 2018
101 Kyrgyz Republic 56.16 2018
102 Slovak Republic 55.88 2018
103 Georgia 55.84 2018
104 Slovenia 55.81 2018
105 Bangladesh 55.78 2017
106 Botswana 55.67 2013
107 Suriname 55.63 2015
108 Chile 55.51 2018
109 Haiti 55.11 2012
110 Fiji 55.10 2016
111 Finland 55.07 2018
112 Portugal 54.98 2018
113 Mauritius 54.90 2018
114 New Caledonia 54.67 2014
115 Hungary 54.63 2018
116 Brazil 54.57 2018
117 Ghana 54.55 2017
118 Costa Rica 54.43 2018
119 Sierra Leone 54.28 2014
120 Côte d'Ivoire 54.23 2017
121 Poland 54.17 2018
122 Argentina 54.10 2018
123 Togo 53.48 2015
124 The Gambia 53.41 2012
125 Romania 52.68 2018
126 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 52.50 2008
127 Saudi Arabia 52.48 2018
128 Bulgaria 52.44 2018
129 Sri Lanka 51.80 2017
130 Dominica 51.37 2001
131 Belgium 50.96 2018
132 France 50.74 2018
133 Tuvalu 50.72 2016
134 Albania 50.29 2017
135 Armenia 50.05 2017
136 Guyana 49.21 2017
137 Lesotho 49.20 2013
138 Spain 49.08 2018
139 Pakistan 48.91 2018
140 Cabo Verde 48.80 2018
141 Congo 48.40 2009
142 Uganda 47.99 2017
143 Monaco 47.89 2016
144 Serbia 47.55 2018
145 Montenegro 47.50 2018
146 Papua New Guinea 47.38 2010
147 Turkey 47.37 2018
148 Namibia 47.18 2018
149 Croatia 46.87 2018
150 India 45.42 2018
151 Italy 44.62 2018
152 Rwanda 44.45 2018
153 North Macedonia 43.75 2018
154 Senegal 42.41 2015
155 Morocco 42.22 2016
156 Afghanistan 42.01 2017
157 Moldova 41.98 2018
158 Greece 41.88 2018
159 Sudan 41.12 2011
160 Comoros 40.85 2014
161 South Africa 40.32 2018
162 Turkmenistan 40.27 1999
163 Angola 40.04 2014
164 Tunisia 39.93 2015
165 Egypt 39.73 2017
166 Eswatini 39.52 2016
167 Lebanon 39.50 2007
168 Tajikistan 39.45 2016
169 Mauritania 39.26 2012
170 Iran 39.14 2018
171 Malawi 39.11 2017
172 Syrian Arab Republic 39.02 2010
173 Kiribati 38.99 2015
174 Gabon 38.80 2010
175 Libya 38.66 2012
176 Tonga 38.24 2003
177 Samoa 37.07 2017
178 Lao PDR 36.94 2017
179 Algeria 36.91 2017
180 Iraq 36.43 2017
181 Bosnia and Herzegovina 35.24 2019
182 Puerto Rico 35.20 2015
183 Nepal 34.16 2017
184 Jordan 32.10 2014
185 Zambia 31.91 2017
186 Yemen 31.37 2014
187 São Tomé and Principe 29.23 2006

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.