Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Madagascar 84.80 2015
2 Uganda 84.20 2013
3 Rwanda 82.60 2014
4 Tanzania 82.20 2014
5 Zimbabwe 80.50 2014
6 Mozambique 79.70 2015
7 Ethiopia 79.40 2013
8 Niger 78.60 2011
9 Burundi 77.80 2014
10 Togo 76.20 2011
11 Ghana 74.50 2013
12 Malawi 73.10 2013
13 Angola 71.60 2011
14 Benin 70.00 2011
15 Nigeria 69.30 2016
16 Zambia 68.70 2012
17 Seychelles 68.00 2015
18 Kenya 65.20 1999
19 Burkina Faso 61.50 2014
19 Guinea 61.50 2002
21 Mali 61.20 2016
22 Côte d'Ivoire 58.70 2016
23 Liberia 56.20 2010
24 Botswana 55.70 2013
25 Mauritius 55.20 2016
26 Sierra Leone 54.30 2014
27 The Gambia 53.40 2012
28 Cabo Verde 52.80 2010
29 Lesotho 49.20 2013
30 Congo 48.40 2009
31 Cameroon 46.70 2014
32 Namibia 46.30 2016
33 Swaziland 43.80 1995
34 Morocco 43.40 2014
35 Senegal 42.40 2015
36 Egypt 40.90 2016
37 Djibouti 40.50 2002
38 South Africa 40.20 2016
39 Tunisia 40.00 2015
39 Mauritania 40.00 2012
41 Comoros 39.50 2004
42 Gabon 38.80 2010
43 Libya 38.70 2012
44 Algeria 37.60 2016
45 São Tomé and Principe 29.20 2006

More rankings: Africa | Asia | Central America & the Caribbean | Europe | Middle East | North America | Oceania | South America | World |

Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.