Employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Rwanda 83.31 2019
2 Madagascar 82.19 2019
3 Nepal 80.82 2019
4 Burundi 79.51 2019
5 Tanzania 77.30 2019
6 Lao PDR 76.41 2019
7 Togo 74.80 2019
8 Mozambique 74.77 2019
9 Cambodia 74.52 2019
10 Zimbabwe 74.49 2019
11 Ethiopia 72.59 2019
12 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 72.02 2019
13 Vietnam 71.25 2019
14 Iceland 69.70 2019
15 Angola 69.65 2019
16 Eritrea 69.03 2019
17 Cameroon 68.29 2019
18 Malawi 68.21 2019
19 Benin 67.88 2019
20 Peru 67.86 2019
21 Niger 67.13 2019
22 Zambia 65.96 2019
23 Uganda 65.83 2019
24 Guinea-Bissau 64.59 2019
25 Macao SAR, China 64.16 2019
26 Chad 63.00 2019
27 Guinea 62.44 2019
28 Solomon Islands 61.38 2019
29 New Zealand 61.25 2019
30 Kazakhstan 60.80 2019
31 Central African Republic 60.03 2019
32 Congo 59.47 2019
33 Switzerland 59.39 2019
34 Ghana 59.17 2019
35 Azerbaijan 59.02 2019
36 The Bahamas 58.82 2019
37 Thailand 58.72 2019
38 Dem. Rep. Congo 58.50 2019
39 China 58.32 2019
40 Singapore 58.07 2019
41 Norway 58.03 2019
42 Vanuatu 57.79 2019
43 Kenya 57.75 2019
44 Qatar 57.32 2019
45 Canada 57.19 2019
46 Sweden 57.16 2019
47 Cabo Verde 57.11 2019
48 Israel 56.87 2019
49 Bhutan 56.70 2019
50 Australia 56.35 2019
51 Sierra Leone 55.54 2019
52 Netherlands 55.47 2019
53 Belarus 55.40 2019
54 Barbados 55.37 2019
55 Denmark 55.02 2019
56 United Kingdom 55.00 2019
57 Kuwait 54.65 2019
58 Bolivia 54.37 2019
59 Mali 54.22 2019
60 Paraguay 53.92 2019
61 Ecuador 53.78 2019
62 United States 53.67 2019
63 Germany 53.62 2019
64 Estonia 53.62 2019
65 Liberia 53.53 2019
66 Haiti 53.22 2019
67 Burkina Faso 53.07 2019
68 Jamaica 53.04 2019
69 Lithuania 52.90 2019
70 Hong Kong SAR, China 52.46 2019
71 Cyprus 52.40 2019
72 Brunei 52.29 2019
73 Austria 52.21 2019
74 Russia 52.12 2019
75 Ireland 52.06 2019
76 Botswana 52.03 2019
77 Colombia 51.60 2019
78 Turkmenistan 51.50 2019
79 Latvia 51.07 2019
80 Finland 50.95 2019
81 Korea 50.88 2019
82 Czech Republic 50.74 2019
83 Uzbekistan 50.53 2019
84 Georgia 50.51 2019
85 Uruguay 50.45 2019
86 Luxembourg 50.41 2019
87 Japan 50.17 2019
88 Indonesia 50.09 2019
89 Mongolia 50.02 2019
90 Portugal 49.94 2019
91 Equatorial Guinea 49.87 2019
92 Panama 49.83 2019
93 Slovenia 49.73 2019
94 Malaysia 49.16 2019
95 Slovak Republic 48.92 2019
96 New Caledonia 48.73 2019
97 Trinidad and Tobago 48.62 2019
98 Djibouti 48.36 2019
99 Nicaragua 48.03 2019
100 Afghanistan 47.68 2019
101 Nigeria 47.32 2019
102 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 47.30 2019
103 Bulgaria 47.20 2019
104 United Arab Emirates 47.12 2019
105 Poland 47.06 2019
106 Chile 46.89 2019
107 Côte d'Ivoire 46.88 2019
108 Dominican Republic 46.80 2019
109 Myanmar 46.55 2019
110 Hungary 46.50 2019
111 St. Lucia 46.21 2019
112 Brazil 46.11 2019
113 The Gambia 45.63 2019
114 France 45.58 2019
115 Belize 45.39 2019
116 Papua New Guinea 45.14 2019
117 Honduras 44.80 2019
118 Philippines 44.74 2019
119 Belgium 44.73 2019
120 El Salvador 44.62 2019
121 Tonga 44.33 2019
122 Lesotho 43.83 2019
123 Romania 43.58 2019
124 Kyrgyz Republic 43.47 2019
125 Argentina 43.32 2019
126 Venezuela 43.15 2019
127 Bahrain 42.98 2019
128 Ukraine 42.65 2019
129 Spain 42.61 2019
130 Namibia 42.60 2019
131 Mexico 42.34 2019
132 Croatia 41.69 2019
133 Malta 41.20 2019
134 Costa Rica 41.10 2019
135 Albania 40.81 2019
136 Armenia 40.60 2019
137 Mauritius 40.38 2019
138 Serbia 39.70 2019
139 Guatemala 39.56 2019
140 Cuba 38.83 2019
141 Moldova 37.29 2019
142 Montenegro 36.50 2019
143 Fiji 36.22 2019
144 Comoros 36.12 2019
145 Italy 35.92 2019
146 Guyana 34.80 2019
147 Suriname 34.69 2019
148 Greece 34.67 2019
149 South Africa 34.27 2019
150 São Tomé and Principe 34.00 2019
151 North Macedonia 33.93 2019
152 Bangladesh 33.82 2019
153 Senegal 32.60 2019
154 Sri Lanka 32.36 2019
155 Gabon 31.40 2019
156 Eswatini 31.37 2019
157 Puerto Rico 29.40 2019
158 Turkey 28.49 2019
159 Bosnia and Herzegovina 26.89 2019
160 Oman 26.85 2019
161 Mauritania 25.43 2019
162 Tajikistan 24.96 2019
163 Timor-Leste 23.88 2019
164 Pakistan 22.87 2019
165 India 22.58 2019
166 Samoa 21.23 2019
167 Lebanon 21.22 2019
168 Libya 19.43 2019
169 Morocco 19.13 2019
170 Sudan 18.81 2019
171 Tunisia 18.58 2019
172 Saudi Arabia 18.54 2019
173 Egypt 17.63 2019
174 Somalia 16.24 2019
175 Iran 13.23 2019
176 Algeria 11.77 2019
177 Jordan 10.91 2019
178 Iraq 10.91 2019
179 Syrian Arab Republic 9.31 2019
180 Yemen 4.50 2019

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: National estimates are also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.