Employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking - Asia

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Nepal 80.82 2019
2 Lao PDR 76.41 2019
3 Cambodia 74.52 2019
4 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 72.02 2019
5 Vietnam 71.25 2019
6 Macao SAR, China 64.16 2019
7 Kazakhstan 60.80 2019
8 Azerbaijan 59.02 2019
9 Thailand 58.72 2019
10 China 58.32 2019
11 Singapore 58.07 2019
12 Qatar 57.32 2019
13 Israel 56.87 2019
14 Bhutan 56.70 2019
15 Kuwait 54.65 2019
16 Hong Kong SAR, China 52.46 2019
17 Brunei 52.29 2019
18 Russia 52.12 2019
19 Turkmenistan 51.50 2019
20 Korea 50.88 2019
21 Uzbekistan 50.53 2019
22 Georgia 50.51 2019
23 Japan 50.17 2019
24 Indonesia 50.09 2019
25 Mongolia 50.02 2019
26 Malaysia 49.16 2019
27 Afghanistan 47.68 2019
28 United Arab Emirates 47.12 2019
29 Myanmar 46.55 2019
30 Philippines 44.74 2019
31 Kyrgyz Republic 43.47 2019
32 Bahrain 42.98 2019
33 Armenia 40.60 2019
34 Bangladesh 33.82 2019
35 Sri Lanka 32.36 2019
36 Turkey 28.49 2019
37 Oman 26.85 2019
38 Tajikistan 24.96 2019
39 Timor-Leste 23.88 2019
40 Pakistan 22.87 2019
41 India 22.58 2019
42 Lebanon 21.22 2019
43 Saudi Arabia 18.54 2019
44 Iran 13.23 2019
45 Jordan 10.91 2019
46 Iraq 10.91 2019
47 Syrian Arab Republic 9.31 2019
48 Yemen 4.50 2019

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: National estimates are also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.