Water productivity, total (constant 2010 US$ GDP per cubic meter of total freshwater withdrawal) - Country Ranking

Definition: Water productivity is calculated as GDP in constant prices divided by annual total water withdrawal.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Luxembourg 1,307.62 2013
2 Monaco 1,050.47 2009
3 Denmark 513.40 2012
4 Malta 425.49 2013
5 United Kingdom 318.14 2012
6 Switzerland 299.07 2012
7 Ireland 288.24 2009
8 Antigua and Barbuda 264.59 2012
9 Qatar 245.86 2005
10 Equatorial Guinea 193.63 2000
11 Sweden 184.21 2010
12 Kuwait 183.49 2002
13 Congo 180.01 2002
14 Slovak Republic 174.82 2014
15 Norway 142.50 2007
16 Israel 129.47 2004
17 Czech Republic 126.34 2013
18 Brunei 116.58 1994
19 Singapore 115.20 1975
20 Latvia 114.20 2013
21 Austria 112.23 2010
22 Cyprus 105.10 2013
23 Germany 102.95 2010
24 Puerto Rico 96.74 2010
25 Gabon 96.63 2005
26 United Arab Emirates 91.92 2005
27 Croatia 91.46 2013
28 France 90.88 2012
29 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 88.65 2013
30 Angola 79.42 2005
31 Netherlands 79.37 2012
32 Australia 78.27 2015
33 Belgium 77.90 2009
34 Bahrain 71.96 2003
35 Japan 67.36 2009
36 Trinidad and Tobago 65.71 2011
37 Barbados 64.01 2005
38 Comoros 63.35 1999
39 Lithuania 62.67 2011
40 Seychelles 61.66 2005
41 St. Kitts and Nevis 61.53 2012
42 Grenada 59.84 2014
43 Iceland 56.35 2015
44 Bosnia and Herzegovina 53.72 2013
45 Cabo Verde 47.77 2001
46 Poland 44.59 2012
47 Botswana 44.14 2000
48 Belarus 41.94 2013
49 Italy 41.21 2008
50 Slovenia 40.49 2013
51 Canada 40.34 2009
52 Benin 38.66 2001
53 Finland 37.72 2006
54 Lesotho 37.57 2000
55 Spain 37.21 2012
56 Oman 35.96 2003
57 United States 35.81 2010
58 Fiji 35.71 2005
59 Greece 34.61 2007
60 St. Lucia 31.43 2007
61 Korea 30.81 2005
62 Brazil 29.54 2010
63 Nigeria 29.14 2010
64 Panama 28.39 2010
65 New Zealand 28.18 2010
66 Uganda 28.09 2008
67 Romania 27.92 2013
68 Jordan 27.74 2015
69 Russia 27.53 2013
70 Papua New Guinea 27.27 2005
71 Namibia 27.08 2002
72 Portugal 26.30 2007
73 South Africa 26.20 2013
74 Hungary 26.05 2012
75 Montenegro 25.73 2010
76 Dominica 24.69 2010
77 Lebanon 24.27 2005
78 Dem. Rep. Congo 24.09 2005
79 Central African Republic 23.23 2005
80 Colombia 23.02 2008
81 Algeria 21.96 2012
82 Saudi Arabia 20.96 2006
83 Ghana 18.69 2000
84 Cameroon 18.39 2000
85 Malaysia 18.29 2005
86 Turkey 17.79 2008
87 Costa Rica 17.75 2013
88 Rwanda 17.50 2000
89 Jamaica 17.42 2007
90 Venezuela 17.32 2007
91 North Macedonia 15.71 2007
92 Togo 15.07 2002
93 China 14.96 2015
94 Côte d'Ivoire 14.40 2005
95 Mexico 14.28 2015
96 Tunisia 13.43 2011
97 Liberia 13.38 2000
98 Estonia 13.23 2014
99 Kenya 12.43 2010
100 Mongolia 12.27 2009
101 The Gambia 12.12 2000
102 Argentina 11.91 2011
103 Paraguay 11.69 2012
104 Libya 10.99 2012
105 Guatemala 10.95 2006
106 Mozambique 10.63 2015
107 Serbia 10.51 2013
108 Mauritius 10.31 2003
109 Cuba 10.06 2013
110 Peru 9.93 2008
111 Bulgaria 9.71 2015
112 Chad 9.56 2005
113 Guinea 9.46 2001
114 Sierra Leone 9.42 2005
115 Belize 9.26 2000
116 Ukraine 9.16 2010
117 Bolivia 9.04 2009
118 Morocco 9.01 2010
119 Burkina Faso 8.40 2005
120 Uruguay 8.16 2000
121 El Salvador 7.99 2005
122 Dominican Republic 7.55 2010
123 Albania 7.45 2006
124 Kazakhstan 7.41 2010
125 Honduras 7.33 2003
126 Yemen 7.06 2005
127 Zambia 6.92 2002
128 Georgia 6.56 2008
129 Moldova 6.03 2007
130 Nicaragua 6.03 2011
131 Suriname 5.98 2006
132 Ecuador 5.94 2005
133 Thailand 5.48 2007
134 Chile 5.46 2006
135 Senegal 5.17 2002
136 Burundi 5.08 2000
137 Ethiopia 5.05 2016
138 Haiti 4.71 2009
139 Niger 4.52 2005
140 Azerbaijan 4.45 2012
141 Iran 4.17 2004
142 Cambodia 4.13 2006
143 Indonesia 4.00 2000
144 Bhutan 3.94 2008
145 Guinea-Bissau 3.77 2000
146 Tanzania 3.72 2002
147 Eritrea 3.69 2004
148 Malawi 3.59 2005
149 Armenia 3.51 2015
150 Sri Lanka 3.21 2005
151 Zimbabwe 3.06 2007
152 Eswatini 3.01 2000
153 Egypt 2.97 2010
154 Bangladesh 2.90 2008
155 India 2.59 2010
156 Mauritania 2.51 2005
157 Sudan 2.39 2011
158 Philippines 2.27 2009
159 Mali 1.72 2006
160 Timor-Leste 1.65 2004
161 Guyana 1.57 2010
162 Iraq 1.54 2000
163 Nepal 1.40 2006
164 Lao PDR 1.39 2005
165 Vietnam 1.04 2005
166 Pakistan 0.92 2008
167 Madagascar 0.67 2006
168 Uzbekistan 0.64 2005
169 Kyrgyz Republic 0.52 2006
170 Myanmar 0.48 2000
171 Turkmenistan 0.44 2004
172 Tajikistan 0.39 2006

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Development Relevance: While some countries have an abundant supply of fresh water, others do not have as much. UN estimates that many areas of the world are already experiencing stress on water availability. Due to the accelerated pace of population growth and an increase in the amount of water a single person uses, it is expected that this situation will continue to get worse. The ability of developing countries to make more water available for domestic, agricultural, industrial and environmental uses will depend on better management of water resources and more cross-sectoral planning and integration. According to World Water Council, by 2020, water use is expected to increase by 40 percent, and 17 percent more water will be required for food production to meet the needs of the growing population. The three major factors causing increasing water demand over the past century are population growth, industrial development and the expansion of irrigated agriculture. There is now ample evidence that increased hydrologic variability and change in climate has and will continue to have a profound impact on the water sector through the hydrologic cycle, water availability, water demand, and water allocation at the global, regional, basin, and local levels. Properly managed water resources are a critical component of growth, poverty reduction and equity. The livelihoods of the poorest are critically associated with access to water services. A shortage of water in the future would be detrimental to the human population as it would affect everything from sanitation, to overall health and the production of grain.

Limitations and Exceptions: A common perception is that most of the available freshwater resources are visible (on the surfaces of lakes, reservoirs and rivers). However, this visible water represents only a tiny fraction of global freshwater resources, as most of it is stored in aquifers, with the largest stocks stored in solid form in the Antarctic and in Greenland's ice cap. The data on freshwater resources are based on estimates of runoff into rivers and recharge of groundwater. These estimates are based on different sources and refer to different years, so cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. Because the data are collected intermittently, they may hide significant variations in total renewable water resources from year to year. The data also fail to distinguish between seasonal and geographic variations in water availability within countries. Data for small countries and countries in arid and semiarid zones are less reliable than those for larger countries and countries with greater rainfall. Caution should also be used in comparing data on annual freshwater withdrawals, which are subject to variations in collection and estimation methods. In addition, inflows and outflows are estimated at different times and at different levels of quality and precision, requiring caution in interpreting the data, particularly for water-short countries, notably in the Middle East and North Africa. The data are based on surveys and estimates provided by governments to the Joint Monitoring Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The coverage rates are based on information from service users on actual household use rather than on information from service providers, which may include nonfunctioning systems.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Water productivity is an indication only of the efficiency by which each country uses its water resources. Given the different economic structure of each country, these indicators should be used carefully, taking into account a country's sectorial activities and natural resource endowments. GDP data are from World Bank's national accounts files. Water withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where water reuse is significant. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including for cooling thermoelectric plants).

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Base Period: 2010

Periodicity: Annual