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Venezuela Demographics Profile

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Population29,069,153 (July 2021 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Venezuelan(s)

adjective: Venezuelan
Ethnic groupsunspecified Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, Indigenous
LanguagesSpanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
Religionsnominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%
Age structure0-14 years: 25.66% (male 3,759,280/female 3,591,897)

15-24 years: 16.14% (male 2,348,073/female 2,275,912)

25-54 years: 41.26% (male 5,869,736/female 5,949,082)

55-64 years: 8.76% (male 1,203,430/female 1,305,285)

65 years and over: 8.18% (male 1,069,262/female 1,272,646) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 54.4

youth dependency ratio: 42.1

elderly dependency ratio: 12.3

potential support ratio: 8.1 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 30 years

male: 29.4 years

female: 30.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.46% (2021 est.)
Birth rate17.55 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate7.13 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate14.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributionmost of the population is concentrated in the northern and western highlands along an eastern spur at the northern end of the Andes, an area that includes the capital of Caracas
Urbanizationurban population: 88.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.16% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population2.946 million CARACAS (capital), 2.296 million Maracaibo, 1.935 million Valencia, 1.227 million Barquisimeto, 1.216 million Maracay (2021)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Maternal mortality rate125 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 22.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.22 years

male: 68.9 years

female: 75.7 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate2.24 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate75% (2010)
Drinking water sourceimproved: total: 95.7% of population

unimproved: total: 4.3% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures3.6% (2018)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: total: 93.9% of population

unimproved: total: 6.4% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.5% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS100,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Note: as of 1 March 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that travelers avoid all nonessential travel to Venezuela; the country is experiencing outbreaks of infectious diseases, and adequate health care is currently not available in most of the country
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.6% (2016)
Food insecuritywidespread lack of access: due to severe economic crisis - the total number of refugees and migrants from the country is estimated at 5.4 million, with the largest populations located in Colombia, Peru, and Chile; humanitarian needs for refugees and migrants are significant; the national economy, highly dependent on oil production and exports, is forecast to contract in 2021 for the eighth consecutive year; with the persistent negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic that have compounded the already severe macro-economic crisis, the access to food of the most vulnerable households is expected to deteriorate throughout 2021 due to widespread losses of income-generating activities and soaring food prices (2021)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.9% (2009)
Education expendituresNA
Demographic profile

Social investment in Venezuela during the CHAVEZ administration reduced poverty from nearly 50% in 1999 to about 27% in 2011, increased school enrollment, substantially decreased infant and child mortality, and improved access to potable water and sanitation through social investment. "Missions" dedicated to education, nutrition, healthcare, and sanitation were funded through petroleum revenues. The sustainability of this progress remains questionable, however, as the continuation of these social programs depends on the prosperity of Venezuela's oil industry. In the long-term, education and health care spending may increase economic growth and reduce income inequality, but rising costs and the staffing of new health care jobs with foreigners are slowing development.

While CHAVEZ was in power, more than one million predominantly middle- and upper-class Venezuelans are estimated to have emigrated. The brain drain is attributed to a repressive political system, lack of economic opportunities, steep inflation, a high crime rate, and corruption. Thousands of oil engineers emigrated to Canada, Colombia, and the United States following CHAVEZ's firing of over 20,000 employees of the state-owned petroleum company during a 2002-03 oil strike. Additionally, thousands of Venezuelans of European descent have taken up residence in their ancestral homelands. Nevertheless, Venezuela has attracted hundreds of thousands of immigrants from South America and southern Europe because of its lenient migration policy and the availability of education and health care. Venezuela also has been a fairly accommodating host to Colombian refugees, numbering about 170,000 as of year-end 2016. However, since 2014, falling oil prices have driven a major economic crisis that has pushed Venezuelans from all walks of life to migrate or to seek asylum abroad to escape severe shortages of food, water, and medicine; soaring inflation; unemployment; and violence. As of March 2020, an estimated 5 million Venezuelans were refugees or migrants worldwide, with almost 80% taking refuge in Latin America and the Caribbean (notably Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as the Dominican Republic, Aruba, and Curacao). Asylum applications increased significantly in the US and Brazil in 2016 and 2017. Several receiving countries are making efforts to increase immigration restrictions and to deport illegal Venezuelan migrants - Ecuador and Peru in August 2018 began requiring valid passports for entry, which are difficult to obtain for Venezuelans. Nevertheless, Venezuelans continue to migrate to avoid economic collapse at home.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.1%

male: 97%

female: 97.2% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021

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