Venezuela vs. Guyana


Population29,069,153 (July 2021 est.)787,971 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure0-14 years: 25.66% (male 3,759,280/female 3,591,897)

15-24 years: 16.14% (male 2,348,073/female 2,275,912)

25-54 years: 41.26% (male 5,869,736/female 5,949,082)

55-64 years: 8.76% (male 1,203,430/female 1,305,285)

65 years and over: 8.18% (male 1,069,262/female 1,272,646) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 23.91% (male 91,317/female 88,025)

15-24 years: 21.23% (male 81,294/female 77,987)

25-54 years: 39.48% (male 154,825/female 141,385)

55-64 years: 8.37% (male 29,385/female 33,386)

65 years and over: 7.01% (male 21,325/female 31,275) (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 30 years

male: 29.4 years

female: 30.7 years (2020 est.)
total: 27.5 years

male: 27.2 years

female: 27.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate2.46% (2021 est.)0.19% (2021 est.)
Birth rate17.55 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)16.64 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate7.13 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)6.87 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate14.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)-7.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 22.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
total: 22.68 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.66 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.22 years

male: 68.9 years

female: 75.7 years (2021 est.)
total population: 71.59 years

male: 69.74 years

female: 73.53 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate2.24 children born/woman (2021 est.)2.07 children born/woman (2021 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.5% (2020 est.)1.3% (2020 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Venezuelan(s)

adjective: Venezuelan
noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Guyanese
Ethnic groupsunspecified Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, IndigenousEast Indian 39.8%, African descent 29.3%, mixed 19.9%, Amerindian 10.5%, other 0.5% (includes Portuguese, Chinese, White) (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS100,000 (2020 est.)9,000 (2020 est.)
Religionsnominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%Protestant 34.8% (Pentecostal 22.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 5.2%, Methodist 1.4%), Hindu 24.8%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, Rastafarian 0.5%, other Christian 20.8%, other 0.9%, none 3.1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA<200 (2020 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
English (official), Guyanese Creole, Amerindian languages (including Caribbean and Arawak languages), Indian languages (including Caribbean Hindustani, a dialect of Hindi), Chinese (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.1%

male: 97%

female: 97.2% (2016)
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 88.5%

male: 87.2%

female: 89.8% (2015)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Note: as of 1 March 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that travelers avoid all nonessential travel to Venezuela; the country is experiencing outbreaks of infectious diseases, and adequate health care is currently not available in most of the country
degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
Education expendituresNA5.5% of GDP (2018)
Urbanizationurban population: 88.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.16% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 26.9% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.01% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved: total: 95.7% of population

unimproved: total: 4.3% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 95.6% of population

total: 96.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 38.7% of population

total: 26.5% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: total: 93.9% of population

unimproved: total: 6.4% of population (2017 est.)
improved: urban: 97.8% of population

rural: 95.4% of population

total: 96% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.2% of population

rural: 4.6% of population

total: 4% of population (2017 est.)
Major cities - population2.946 million CARACAS (capital), 2.296 million Maracaibo, 1.935 million Valencia, 1.227 million Barquisimeto, 1.216 million Maracay (2021)110,000 GEORGETOWN (capital) (2018)
Maternal mortality rate125 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)667 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.9% (2009)8.2% (2014)
Health expenditures3.6% (2018)5.9% (2018)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2017)1.7 beds/1,000 population (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.6% (2016)20.2% (2016)
Demographic profile

Social investment in Venezuela during the CHAVEZ administration reduced poverty from nearly 50% in 1999 to about 27% in 2011, increased school enrollment, substantially decreased infant and child mortality, and improved access to potable water and sanitation through social investment. "Missions" dedicated to education, nutrition, healthcare, and sanitation were funded through petroleum revenues. The sustainability of this progress remains questionable, however, as the continuation of these social programs depends on the prosperity of Venezuela's oil industry. In the long-term, education and health care spending may increase economic growth and reduce income inequality, but rising costs and the staffing of new health care jobs with foreigners are slowing development.

While CHAVEZ was in power, more than one million predominantly middle- and upper-class Venezuelans are estimated to have emigrated. The brain drain is attributed to a repressive political system, lack of economic opportunities, steep inflation, a high crime rate, and corruption. Thousands of oil engineers emigrated to Canada, Colombia, and the United States following CHAVEZ's firing of over 20,000 employees of the state-owned petroleum company during a 2002-03 oil strike. Additionally, thousands of Venezuelans of European descent have taken up residence in their ancestral homelands. Nevertheless, Venezuela has attracted hundreds of thousands of immigrants from South America and southern Europe because of its lenient migration policy and the availability of education and health care. Venezuela also has been a fairly accommodating host to Colombian refugees, numbering about 170,000 as of year-end 2016. However, since 2014, falling oil prices have driven a major economic crisis that has pushed Venezuelans from all walks of life to migrate or to seek asylum abroad to escape severe shortages of food, water, and medicine; soaring inflation; unemployment; and violence. As of March 2020, an estimated 5 million Venezuelans were refugees or migrants worldwide, with almost 80% taking refuge in Latin America and the Caribbean (notably Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as the Dominican Republic, Aruba, and Curacao). Asylum applications increased significantly in the US and Brazil in 2016 and 2017. Several receiving countries are making efforts to increase immigration restrictions and to deport illegal Venezuelan migrants - Ecuador and Peru in August 2018 began requiring valid passports for entry, which are difficult to obtain for Venezuelans. Nevertheless, Venezuelans continue to migrate to avoid economic collapse at home.

Guyana is the only English-speaking country in South America and shares cultural and historical bonds with the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana's two largest ethnic groups are the Afro-Guyanese (descendants of African slaves) and the Indo-Guyanese (descendants of Indian indentured laborers), which together comprise about three quarters of Guyana's population. Tensions periodically have boiled over between the two groups, which back ethnically based political parties and vote along ethnic lines. Poverty reduction has stagnated since the late 1990s. About one-third of the Guyanese population lives below the poverty line; indigenous people are disproportionately affected. Although Guyana's literacy rate is reported to be among the highest in the Western Hemisphere, the level of functional literacy is considerably lower, which has been attributed to poor education quality, teacher training, and infrastructure.

Guyana's emigration rate is among the highest in the world - more than 55% of its citizens reside abroad - and it is one of the largest recipients of remittances relative to GDP among Latin American and Caribbean counties. Although remittances are a vital source of income for most citizens, the pervasive emigration of skilled workers deprives Guyana of professionals in healthcare and other key sectors. More than 80% of Guyanese nationals with tertiary level educations have emigrated. Brain drain and the concentration of limited medical resources in Georgetown hamper Guyana's ability to meet the health needs of its predominantly rural population. Guyana has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the region and continues to rely on international support for its HIV treatment and prevention programs.

Contraceptive prevalence rate75% (2010)33.9% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 54.4

youth dependency ratio: 42.1

elderly dependency ratio: 12.3

potential support ratio: 8.1 (2020 est.)
total dependency ratio: 53.2

youth dependency ratio: 42.5

elderly dependency ratio: 10.7

potential support ratio: 9.3 (2020 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook