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Peru Demographics Profile

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31,914,989 (July 2020 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 25.43% (male 4,131,985/female 3,984,546)
15-24 years: 17.21% (male 2,756,024/female 2,736,394)
25-54 years: 41.03% (male 6,279,595/female 6,815,159)
55-64 years: 8.28% (male 1,266,595/female 1,375,708)
65 years and over: 8.05% (male 1,207,707/female 1,361,276) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 50.2
youth dependency ratio: 37.1
elderly dependency ratio: 13.1
potential support ratio: 7.6 (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 29.1 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
0.92% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
17 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
urban population: 78.3% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 1.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
10.719 million LIMA (capital), 923,000 Arequipa, 865,000 Trujillo (2020)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 96.1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
22.2 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 74.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 76.9 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
76.3% (2018)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.4% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
87,000 (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
<1000 (2019 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 95.6% of population
rural: 77.4% of population
total: 92.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 4.4% of population
rural: 22.6% of population
total: 7.9% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 60.8% of population
total: 85.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 14.8% of population (2017 est.)
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Peru; as of 10 November 2020, Peru has reported a total of 917,503 cases of COVID-19 or 27,827 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 1,055 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; at this time, there are no specific limitations or quarantine requirements for US citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents entering the US from Peru; on 3 June 2020, Peruvian President Martín VIZCARRA signed a supreme decree extending Peru’s Health State of Emergency for 90 days beginning Wednesday, 10 June 2020; this is not an extension of the national quarantine, although social distancing and the use of facemasks will be required for the foreseeable future
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, white 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)
Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other .3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)
Demographic profile

Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.

Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none .1%, unspecified .7% (2017 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.4%
male: 97.1%
female: 91.7% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2017)
Education expenditures
3.9% of GDP (2017)
Maternal mortality rate
88 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
2.6% (2018)
Health expenditures
5% (2017)
Physicians density
1.3 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
19.7% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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