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Nicaragua Demographics Profile 2019

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Population
6,085,213 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 26.65% (male 827,585 /female 794,086)
15-24 years: 20.67% (male 632,847 /female 624,811)
25-54 years: 41.04% (male 1,186,467 /female 1,310,957)
55-64 years: 6.19% (male 173,674 /female 202,765)
65 years and over: 5.46% (male 147,324 /female 184,697) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 54.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 46.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 12.8 (2015 est.)
Median age
total: 26.2 years (2018 est.)
male: 25.3 years
female: 27.1 years
Population growth rate
0.97% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
17.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 58.8% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
1.055 million MANAGUA (capital) (2019)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.2 years (2011/12 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 20.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 73.7 years (2018 est.)
male: 71.5 years
female: 76.1 years
Total fertility rate
1.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
80.4% (2011/12)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.2% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
9,400 (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
200 (2018 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 69.4% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 30.6% of population
total: 13% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 76.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 55.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 67.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 44.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 32.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

Nationality
noun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan
Ethnic groups
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
Religions
Roman Catholic 50%, Evangelical 33.2%, other 2.9%, unspecified 13.2%, none 0.7% (2017 est.)
Demographic profile

Despite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunization rates. However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua's total fertility rate has fallen from around 6 children per woman in 1980 to below replacement level today, but the high birth rate among adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment.

Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war, and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilized. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.

Languages
Spanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5% (2005 est.)

note: English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.8%
male: 82.4%
female: 83.2% (2015 est.)
Education expenditures
4.3% of GDP (2017)
Maternal mortality rate
198 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
4.6% (2012)
Health expenditures
7.8% (2015)
Physicians density
1.01 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
23.7% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on December 7, 2019

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