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Netherlands Geography Profile 2018

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LocationWestern Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Geographic coordinates52 30 N, 5 45 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 41,543 sq km
land: 33,893 sq km
water: 7,650 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundariestotal: 1,053 km
border countries (2): Belgium 478 km, Germany 575 km
Coastline451 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climatetemperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Terrainmostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 30 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 m
highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)
note: the highest point on continental Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 55.1%
arable land 29.8%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 24.2%
forest: 10.8%
other: 34.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,860 sq km (2012)
Population distributionan area known as the Randstad, anchored by the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, and Utrecht, is the most densely populated region; the north tends to be less dense, though sizeable communities can be found throughout the entire country
Natural hazardsflooding
volcanism: Mount Scenery (887 m), located on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, last erupted in 1640; Round Hill (601 m), a dormant volcano also known as The Quill, is located on the island of St. Eustatius in the Caribbean; these islands are at the northern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends south to Grenada
Environment - current issueswater pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelocated at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde); about a quarter of the country lies below sea level and only about half of the land exceeds one meter above sea level

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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