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Nepal Government Profile 2018

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Country nameconventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal
etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Independence1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
National holidayRepublic Day, 28 May (2008); note - marks the abdication of Gyanendra SHAH, the last Nepalese monarch, and the establishment of a federal republic
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015
amendments: proposed as a “bill” by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended January 2016 (2017)
Legal systemEnglish common law and Hindu legal concepts
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchhead of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA; Deputy Prime Ministers Bijay Kumar GACHHADAR, Krishna Bahadur MAHARA, Gopal Man SHRESTHA; note - Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL resigned on 25 May 2017 as part of a rotational power-sharing arrangement between the CPN-MC and NC
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the CPN-MC and the NC
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament
election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI elected president; Constituent Assembly vote - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 327, Kul Bahadur GURUNG (NC) 214; BHANDARI is Nepal's first woman president
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years) and the House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: first election for House of Representatives held on 26 November and 7 December 2017 (next to be held in 2022); first election for the National Assembly to be held on 8 Februay 2018
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-UML 121, NC 63, CPN-MC 53, FSFN 16, other 4, independent 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member,high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice term of office is 6 years; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; district courts
note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
Political parties and leadersnote: the Election Commission, Nepal, granted ballot access under the proportional system to 88 political parties for the November-December 2017 House of Representatives election to the Federal Parliament; of these, the following 9 parties and 1 independent won seats
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) or CPN-MC [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]
Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Khadga Prasad Sharma OLI]
Federal Socialist Forum Nepal or FSFN [Upendra YADAV]
Naya Shakti Party {Baburam BHATTARAI]
Nepali Congress or NC [Sher Bahadur DEUBA]
Nepal Workers Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Rastriya Janamorcha or RJM [Chitra BAHADUR]
Rastriya Janata Party Nepal (RJPN) [Rajendra MAHATO]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Kamai THAPA]
Political pressure groups and leadersNational Federation of Indigenous Nationalities
Tharu Kalyankari Sabha (Tharus rights advocacy group)
International organization participationADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Alaina B. TEPLITZ (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
Flag descriptioncrimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
National symbol(s)rhododendron blossom; national color: red
National anthemname: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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