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Greenland Geography Profile 2018

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LocationNorthern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Geographic coordinates72 00 N, 40 00 W
Map referencesArctic Region
Areatotal: 2,166,086 sq km
land: 2,166,086 sq km (410,449 sq km ice-free, 1,755,637 sq km ice-covered)
Area - comparativeslightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries0 km
Coastline44,087 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm or agreed boundaries or median line
continental shelf: 200 nm or agreed boundaries or median line
Climatearctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrainflat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,792 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunnbjorn Fjeld 3,694 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, lead, zinc, molybdenum, diamonds, gold, platinum, niobium, tantalite, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Land useagricultural land: 0.6%
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.6%
forest: 0%
other: 99.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated landNA
Population distributionsettlement concentrated on the southwest shoreline, with limited settlements scattered along the remaining coast; interior is uninhabited
Natural hazardscontinuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Environment - current issuesprotection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Geography - notedominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice sheet after that of Antarctica

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018