Japan - Employment to population ratio, 15+, male (%) (national estimate)

Employment to population ratio, 15+, male (%) (national estimate) in Japan was 68.10 as of 2016. Its highest value over the past 56 years was 83.70 in 1961, while its lowest value was 67.50 in 2012.

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also:

Year Value
1960 83.40
1961 83.70
1962 83.30
1963 82.10
1964 81.30
1965 80.80
1966 80.60
1967 80.70
1968 81.10
1969 80.90
1970 80.80
1971 81.20
1972 80.90
1973 81.00
1974 80.70
1975 79.80
1976 79.40
1977 78.90
1978 78.40
1979 78.40
1980 78.20
1981 78.00
1982 77.60
1983 77.30
1984 76.70
1985 76.10
1986 75.60
1987 75.10
1988 75.20
1989 75.30
1990 75.60
1991 76.00
1992 76.30
1993 76.10
1994 75.60
1995 75.20
1996 75.10
1997 75.10
1998 74.10
1999 73.20
2000 72.70
2001 71.70
2002 70.60
2003 70.10
2004 69.80
2005 69.90
2006 70.00
2007 70.20
2008 69.80
2009 68.20
2010 67.70
2011 67.80
2012 67.50
2013 67.50
2014 67.70
2015 67.80
2016 68.10

Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.


Topic: Labor & Social Protection Indicators

Sub-Topic: Economic activity