High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports) - Country Ranking

Definition: High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.

Source: United Nations, Comtrade database through the WITS platform.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Philippines 61.11 2018
2 Malaysia 52.77 2018
3 Singapore 51.72 2018
4 Palau 51.68 2018
5 São Tomé and Principe 45.97 2018
6 Vietnam 41.41 2017
7 Korea 36.35 2018
8 St. Kitts and Nevis 34.60 2017
9 Lao PDR 33.61 2016
10 Malta 32.38 2018
11 China 30.89 2017
12 Andorra 28.46 2018
13 Central African Republic 27.93 2017
14 France 25.92 2018
15 Ireland 24.68 2018
16 Iceland 23.47 2018
17 Thailand 23.34 2018
18 Israel 22.83 2018
19 Netherlands 22.70 2018
20 United Kingdom 22.30 2018
21 Kazakhstan 22.28 2018
22 Norway 21.23 2018
23 Mexico 21.04 2018
24 Cyprus 19.86 2018
25 Czech Republic 19.56 2018
26 Latvia 18.90 2018
27 United States 18.90 2018
28 Costa Rica 18.52 2017
29 Japan 17.27 2018
30 Burundi 17.04 2018
31 Hungary 16.91 2018
32 Estonia 16.83 2018
33 Australia 16.71 2018
34 Germany 15.74 2018
35 Canada 15.72 2018
36 Sweden 14.34 2018
37 Denmark 13.86 2018
38 United Arab Emirates 13.63 2018
39 Hong Kong SAR, China 13.50 2016
40 Switzerland 13.37 2018
41 Brazil 12.95 2018
42 Greece 12.81 2018
43 Rwanda 12.54 2016
44 Lithuania 12.11 2018
45 Austria 11.64 2018
46 Malawi 11.51 2017
47 Russia 10.96 2018
48 Poland 10.60 2018
49 Slovak Republic 10.58 2018
50 Belgium 10.33 2018
51 Romania 10.08 2018
52 Bulgaria 9.98 2018
53 New Zealand 9.73 2018
54 Paraguay 9.69 2018
55 Panama 9.19 2016
56 India 9.01 2018
57 Dominica 9.01 2012
58 Finland 8.93 2018
59 Croatia 8.89 2018
60 Dominican Republic 8.57 2017
61 Ghana 8.26 2018
62 Indonesia 8.02 2018
63 Yemen 8.02 2015
64 Kyrgyz Republic 7.95 2018
65 Suriname 7.94 2018
66 Italy 7.79 2018
67 Tunisia 7.39 2017
68 Colombia 7.27 2018
69 Uruguay 7.20 2018
70 Spain 7.19 2018
71 Côte d'Ivoire 7.19 2017
72 Armenia 7.05 2018
73 Luxembourg 6.97 2018
74 Tanzania 6.89 2018
75 Slovenia 6.81 2018
76 Chile 6.38 2018
77 El Salvador 6.13 2018
78 Burkina Faso 5.96 2017
79 Kiribati 5.95 2016
80 Ethiopia 5.84 2016
81 Mozambique 5.64 2018
82 Ukraine 5.41 2018
83 Guatemala 5.34 2017
84 Argentina 5.33 2018
85 Seychelles 5.33 2018
86 South Africa 5.32 2018
87 Ecuador 5.28 2018
88 New Caledonia 5.27 2015
89 Portugal 5.27 2018
90 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.24 2018
91 Mongolia 4.96 2018
92 Cameroon 4.91 2017
93 Bolivia 4.86 2018
94 St. Lucia 4.57 2017
95 Peru 4.57 2018
96 Myanmar 4.34 2018
97 Kuwait 4.12 2018
98 North Macedonia 4.05 2018
99 Azerbaijan 4.03 2018
100 Belarus 3.98 2018
101 Papua New Guinea 3.89 2012
102 Morocco 3.84 2017
103 Kenya 3.62 2018
104 Benin 3.58 2017
105 Uganda 3.54 2018
106 Georgia 3.34 2018
107 Montenegro 3.17 2018
108 Honduras 3.13 2017
109 Samoa 3.09 2018
110 Niger 2.98 2016
111 Fiji 2.86 2018
112 Senegal 2.81 2018
113 Tonga 2.70 2014
114 Mauritius 2.60 2018
115 Moldova 2.53 2018
116 Lebanon 2.35 2018
117 Turkey 2.33 2018
118 Pakistan 2.20 2018
119 Congo 2.16 2017
120 Jamaica 2.11 2017
121 Zimbabwe 2.05 2018
122 Zambia 2.00 2018
123 Cambodia 1.86 2016
124 Nigeria 1.85 2018
125 Jordan 1.81 2017
126 Greenland 1.71 2018
127 Syrian Arab Republic 1.51 2010
128 Solomon Islands 1.36 2018
129 Iran 1.34 2017
130 Mali 1.24 2017
131 Nepal 1.18 2017
132 Oman 1.12 2017
133 Bahrain 1.05 2016
134 Sri Lanka 1.02 2017
135 Guinea 0.96 2015
136 Djibouti 0.93 2009
137 Egypt 0.87 2018
138 Nicaragua 0.68 2018
139 Botswana 0.62 2018
140 Saudi Arabia 0.61 2018
141 Algeria 0.60 2017
142 Madagascar 0.56 2017
143 Bangladesh 0.31 2015
144 Eswatini 0.30 2017
145 Namibia 0.22 2018
146 Antigua and Barbuda 0.21 2018
147 Lesotho 0.21 2017
148 Togo 0.17 2017
149 Macao SAR, China 0.16 2014
150 Trinidad and Tobago 0.14 2015
151 The Gambia 0.08 2017
152 Guyana 0.07 2018
153 Belize 0.07 2018
154 Sierra Leone 0.06 2017
155 Albania 0.05 2018
156 Brunei 0.04 2018
157 Bhutan 0.02 2012
158 Qatar 0.00 2018
159 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.00 2018
160 Cabo Verde 0.00 2014
161 Mauritania 0.00 2016
162 The Bahamas 0.00 2010

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Development Relevance: The OECD has developed a four-way classification of exports: high, medium-high, medium-low and low-technology. The classification is based on the importance of expenditures on research and development relative to the gross output and value added of different types of industries that produce goods for export. Examples of high-technology industries are aircraft, computers, and pharmaceuticals; medium-high-technology includes motor vehicles, electrical equipment and most chemicals; medium-low-technology includes rubber, plastics, basic metals and ship construction; low-technology industries include food processing, textiles, clothing and footwear. Industries of high and medium-high-technology intensity account for over two-thirds of total OECD manufacturing exports. Differences among countries are substantial; the share of high and medium-high-technology industries ranges from over 80 percent in Japan and Ireland to less than 10 percent in Iceland. Technology exports have grown rapidly in Iceland, Turkey and the eastern European countries, although most of these countries, with Hungary and the Czech Republic as exceptions, still focus primarily on low and medium-low-technology exports.

Limitations and Exceptions: Because industrial sectors specializing in a few high-technology products may also produce low-technology products, the product approach is more appropriate for international trade. The method takes only R&D intensity into account, but other characteristics of high technology are also important, such as knowhow, scientific personnel, and technology embodied in patents. Considering these characteristics would yield a different list (see Hatzichronoglou 1997).

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The method for determining high-technology exports was developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in collaboration with Eurostat. It takes a "product approach" (rather than a "sectoral approach") based on R&D intensity (expenditure divided by total sales) for groups of products from Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. The original high-tech products classification is based on SITC Rev. 3 and is taken from Table 4 of Annex 2 of the 1997 working paper of Thomas Hatzichronouglou, OECD. The methodology used to determine high-tech exports takes the "product approach" based on R&D intensity on products from Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. High Technology Products List - SITC Rev. 3: 1 Aerospace 7921+7922+7923+7924+7925+79291+79293+(714-71489-71499)+87411 2 Computers-office machines 75113+75131+75132+75134+(752-7529)+75997 3 Electronics-telecommunications 76381+76383+(764-76493-76499) +7722+77261+77318+77625+77627+7763+7764+7768+89879 4 Pharmacy 5413+5415+5416+5421+5422 5 Scientific instruments 774+8711+8713+8714+8719+87211+(874-87411-8742) +88111+88121+88411+88419+89961+89963+89966+89967 6 Electrical machinery 77862+77863+77864+77865+7787+77884 7 Chemistry 52222+52223+52229+52269+525+531+57433+591 8 Non-electrical machinery 71489+71499+71871+71877+71878+72847+7311+73131+73135 +73142+73144+73151+73153+73161+73163+73165 +73312+73314+73316+7359+73733+73735 9 Armament 891

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual