Children in employment, wage workers, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Wage workers (also known as employees) are people who hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that provide basic remuneration that does not depend directly on the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Source: Understanding Children's Work project based on data from ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Egypt 56.57 2009
2 Rwanda 37.38 2011
3 Zimbabwe 27.08 1999
4 Sudan 20.05 2008
5 Swaziland 18.52 2010
6 Nigeria 18.12 2011
7 Algeria 15.35 2013
8 Mauritania 13.07 2011
9 Tunisia 12.61 2012
10 Gabon 12.49 2012
11 Madagascar 10.82 2007
12 Congo 10.17 2012
13 Dem. Rep. Congo 8.90 2010
14 Chad 8.85 2010
15 Niger 8.31 2012
16 South Africa 7.86 1999
17 Angola 7.60 2001
18 Burundi 7.46 2010
19 Central African Republic 6.45 2010
20 Côte d'Ivoire 6.29 2012
21 Malawi 6.10 2006
22 Namibia 5.60 1999
23 Benin 5.14 2012
24 Guinea-Bissau 4.75 2006
24 Mozambique 4.75 2008
26 Lesotho 4.66 2000
27 Zambia 4.51 2008
28 Uganda 4.29 2012
29 Ethiopia 3.25 2011
30 Cameroon 2.98 2011
31 Guinea 2.94 2012
32 Mali 2.74 2013
33 Togo 1.89 2010
34 Tanzania 1.88 2014
35 Burkina Faso 1.22 2010
36 Liberia 1.21 2010
37 Senegal 1.17 2011
38 Sierra Leone 1.09 2013
39 Somalia 0.80 2006
40 Ghana 0.60 2012

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Development Relevance: In most countries more boys are involved in employment, or the gender difference is small. However, girls are often more present in hidden or underreported forms of employment such as domestic service, and in almost all societies girls bear greater responsibility for household chores in their own homes, work that lies outside the System of National Accounts production boundary and is thus not considered in estimates of children's employment.

Limitations and Exceptions: Although efforts are made to harmonize the definition of employment and the questions on employment in survey questionnaires, significant differences remain in the survey instruments that collect data on children in employment and in the sampling design underlying the surveys. Differences exist not only across different household surveys in the same country but also across the same type of survey carried out in different countries, so estimates of working children are not fully comparable across countries. For detailed source information, see footnotes at each data point.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data are from household surveys by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and national statistical offices. The surveys yield data on education, employment, health, expenditure, and consumption indicators related to children's work. Since children's work is captured in the sense of "economic activity," the data refer to children in employment, a broader concept than child labor (see ILO 2009a for details on this distinction). Household survey data generally include information on work type - for example, whether a child is working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in unpaid work, working for someone who is not a member of the household, or involved in any type of family work (on the farm or in a business). In line with the definition of economic activity adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, the threshold set by the 1993 UN System of National Accounts for classifying a person as employed is to have been engaged at least one hour in any activity relating to the production of goods and services during the reference period. Children seeking work are thus excluded. Economic activity covers all market production and certain nonmarket production, including production of goods for own use. It excludes unpaid household services (commonly called "household chores") - that is, the production of domestic and personal services by household members for a household's own consumption. Country surveys define the ages for child labor as 5-17. The data here have been recalculated to present statistics for children ages 7-14.

Periodicity: Annual