Children in employment, wage workers, female (% of female children in employment, ages 7-14) - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Wage workers (also known as employees) are people who hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that provide basic remuneration that does not depend directly on the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Source: Understanding Children's Work project based on data from ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Egypt 72.09 2009
2 Zimbabwe 30.00 1999
3 Rwanda 25.04 2011
4 Tunisia 15.54 2012
5 Nigeria 13.57 2011
6 Sudan 13.53 2008
7 Algeria 13.00 2013
8 Mauritania 12.98 2011
9 Eswatini 12.92 2010
10 Madagascar 8.96 2007
11 South Africa 6.89 1999
12 Niger 6.67 2012
13 Chad 6.55 2010
14 Dem. Rep. Congo 6.20 2010
15 Burundi 5.04 2010
16 Angola 4.80 2001
17 Gabon 4.66 2012
18 Côte d'Ivoire 4.65 2012
19 Benin 4.42 2012
20 Congo 3.97 2012
21 Malawi 3.64 2015
22 Ethiopia 3.32 2011
23 Zambia 3.29 2008
24 Namibia 3.20 1999
25 Guinea-Bissau 3.00 2006
26 Mali 2.95 2013
27 Mozambique 2.68 2008
28 Togo 2.63 2010
29 Somalia 2.44 2006
30 Lesotho 2.25 2000
31 Central African Republic 2.22 2010
32 Senegal 1.90 2011
33 Guinea 1.88 2012
34 Cameroon 1.86 2011
35 Uganda 1.72 2012
36 Burkina Faso 1.48 2010
37 Tanzania 1.32 2014
38 Liberia 0.40 2010
39 Sierra Leone 0.39 2013
40 Ghana 0.30 2012
41 The Gambia 0.22 2015

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Development Relevance: In most countries more boys are involved in employment, or the gender difference is small. However, girls are often more present in hidden or underreported forms of employment such as domestic service, and in almost all societies girls bear greater responsibility for household chores in their own homes, work that lies outside the System of National Accounts production boundary and is thus not considered in estimates of children's employment.

Limitations and Exceptions: Although efforts are made to harmonize the definition of employment and the questions on employment in survey questionnaires, significant differences remain in the survey instruments that collect data on children in employment and in the sampling design underlying the surveys. Differences exist not only across different household surveys in the same country but also across the same type of survey carried out in different countries, so estimates of working children are not fully comparable across countries. In addition, the shares of three categories (self-employed workers, wage workers, and unpaid family workers) may not add up to 100 percent because of a residual category not included.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data are from household surveys by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and national statistical offices. The surveys yield data on education, employment, health, expenditure, and consumption indicators related to children's work. Since children's work is captured in the sense of "economic activity," the data refer to children in employment, a broader concept than child labor (see ILO 2009a for details on this distinction). Household survey data generally include information on work type - for example, whether a child is working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in unpaid work, working for someone who is not a member of the household, or involved in any type of family work (on the farm or in a business). In line with the definition of economic activity adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, the threshold set by the 1993 UN System of National Accounts for classifying a person as employed is to have been engaged at least one hour in any activity relating to the production of goods and services during the reference period. Children seeking work are thus excluded. Economic activity covers all market production and certain nonmarket production, including production of goods for own use. It excludes unpaid household services (commonly called "household chores") - that is, the production of domestic and personal services by household members for a household's own consumption. Country surveys define the ages for child labor as 5-17. The data here have been recalculated to present statistics for children ages 7-14.

Periodicity: Annual