Children in employment, study and work (% of children in employment, ages 7-14) - Country Ranking

Definition: Children in employment refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey. Study and work refer to children attending school in combination with economic activity.

Source: Understanding Children's Work project based on data from ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Belarus 100.00 2012
1 Armenia 100.00 2010
1 Jamaica 100.00 2011
1 Moldova 100.00 2009
5 Bosnia and Herzegovina 99.90 2006
6 Kyrgyz Republic 99.71 2014
7 Serbia 99.15 2014
8 Chile 99.10 2012
9 Georgia 99.00 2006
9 Uzbekistan 99.00 2006
11 Ukraine 98.70 2012
12 North Macedonia 98.55 2011
13 Kazakhstan 98.40 2006
14 Eswatini 97.56 2010
15 Trinidad and Tobago 97.40 2006
16 Gabon 97.09 2012
17 Sri Lanka 96.83 2009
18 Portugal 96.40 2001
19 Mongolia 96.22 2013
20 Brazil 95.96 2015
21 Thailand 95.80 2006
22 Algeria 95.49 2013
23 Argentina 95.25 2012
24 Dominican Republic 95.20 2014
25 Congo 95.00 2012
26 Albania 94.90 2010
26 South Africa 94.90 1999
28 Azerbaijan 93.70 2005
29 Uganda 93.38 2012
30 Bolivia 93.28 2015
31 Malawi 92.70 2015
32 Haiti 92.38 2012
33 Ecuador 91.78 2015
34 Nepal 91.25 2014
35 Tajikistan 91.00 2005
36 Paraguay 90.71 2014
37 Namibia 90.51 1999
38 Dem. Rep. Congo 89.48 2014
39 Uruguay 89.34 2009
40 Ghana 88.02 2012
41 Zimbabwe 88.00 1999
42 Panama 86.90 2014
43 Colombia 86.64 2015
44 Philippines 86.10 2011
45 Mexico 85.54 2013
46 Costa Rica 85.26 2016
47 Togo 85.08 2014
48 Cameroon 85.00 2011
49 Tunisia 84.60 2012
50 Nicaragua 84.42 2012
51 El Salvador 84.32 2013
52 Mozambique 81.75 2008
53 Burundi 81.74 2010
54 Zambia 81.42 2008
55 Vietnam 81.00 2012
56 Jordan 79.98 2016
57 Romania 79.30 2000
58 Rwanda 79.20 2014
59 Cambodia 78.90 2012
60 Nigeria 76.55 2011
61 Liberia 76.07 2010
62 Peru 75.93 2015
63 Guinea-Bissau 75.79 2014
64 Central African Republic 75.19 2010
65 Sudan 74.50 2014
66 Angola 73.40 2001
67 Sierra Leone 73.20 2013
68 Tanzania 70.78 2014
69 Venezuela 68.87 2013
70 Benin 67.60 2012
71 Kenya 67.51 2009
72 Iraq 66.40 2011
73 Syrian Arab Republic 65.40 2006
74 Ethiopia 64.88 2011
75 Yemen 64.03 2010
76 Timor-Leste 63.40 2007
77 Turkey 61.20 2006
78 Guatemala 61.03 2015
79 Madagascar 59.10 2007
80 Côte d'Ivoire 58.85 2012
81 Honduras 58.25 2014
82 Mauritania 56.29 2011
83 Indonesia 55.60 2010
84 Senegal 55.26 2015
85 Chad 50.73 2015
86 Guinea 50.50 2012
87 Afghanistan 50.00 2011
88 Somalia 46.50 2006
89 Niger 45.50 2012
90 Mali 45.20 2013
91 Egypt 45.00 2009
92 The Gambia 43.37 2015
93 Burkina Faso 43.17 2010
94 Bangladesh 41.93 2013
95 Lesotho 25.60 2002
96 India 17.50 2012
97 Morocco 15.50 2004
98 Pakistan 12.55 2011
99 Lao PDR 10.65 2010

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Development Relevance: In most countries more boys are involved in employment, or the gender difference is small. However, girls are often more present in hidden or underreported forms of employment such as domestic service, and in almost all societies girls bear greater responsibility for household chores in their own homes, work that lies outside the System of National Accounts production boundary and is thus not considered in estimates of children's employment.

Limitations and Exceptions: Although efforts are made to harmonize the definition of employment and the questions on employment in survey questionnaires, significant differences remain in the survey instruments that collect data on children in employment and in the sampling design underlying the surveys. Differences exist not only across different household surveys in the same country but also across the same type of survey carried out in different countries, so estimates of working children are not fully comparable across countries. For detailed source information, see footnotes at each data point.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data are from household surveys by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and national statistical offices. The surveys yield data on education, employment, health, expenditure, and consumption indicators related to children's work. Since children's work is captured in the sense of "economic activity," the data refer to children in employment, a broader concept than child labor (see ILO 2009a for details on this distinction). Household survey data generally include information on work type - for example, whether a child is working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in unpaid work, working for someone who is not a member of the household, or involved in any type of family work (on the farm or in a business). In line with the definition of economic activity adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, the threshold set by the 1993 UN System of National Accounts for classifying a person as employed is to have been engaged at least one hour in any activity relating to the production of goods and services during the reference period. Children seeking work are thus excluded. Economic activity covers all market production and certain nonmarket production, including production of goods for own use. It excludes unpaid household services (commonly called "household chores") - that is, the production of domestic and personal services by household members for a household's own consumption. Country surveys define the ages for child labor as 5-17. The data here have been recalculated to present statistics for children ages 7-14.

Periodicity: Annual