Children in employment, study and work, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) - Country Ranking

Definition: Children in employment refer to children involved in economic activity for at least one hour in the reference week of the survey. Study and work refer to children attending school in combination with economic activity.

Source: Understanding Children's Work project based on data from ILO, UNICEF and the World Bank.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Armenia 100.00 2010
1 Jamaica 100.00 2011
1 Belarus 100.00 2012
1 Uzbekistan 100.00 2005
1 Moldova 100.00 2009
6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 99.80 2006
7 Kyrgyz Republic 99.74 2014
8 Macedonia 99.21 2011
9 Georgia 99.00 2006
10 Kazakhstan 98.80 2006
10 Chile 98.80 2012
12 Serbia 98.65 2014
13 Ukraine 97.70 2012
14 Swaziland 96.95 2010
15 Portugal 96.42 2001
16 Algeria 95.95 2013
17 Trinidad and Tobago 95.80 2006
18 Gabon 95.75 2012
19 Albania 95.65 2010
20 Sri Lanka 95.62 2009
21 South Africa 95.30 1999
22 Argentina 95.27 2012
23 Congo 95.20 2012
24 Thailand 95.10 2005
25 Brazil 94.89 2014
26 Malawi 94.43 2014
27 Mongolia 94.16 2013
28 Tajikistan 93.90 2005
29 Azerbaijan 93.70 2005
30 Dominican Republic 93.07 2014
31 Nepal 92.86 2014
32 Uganda 92.82 2012
33 Dem. Rep. Congo 92.61 2014
34 Bolivia 92.39 2013
35 Haiti 92.31 2012
36 Paraguay 89.79 2014
37 Ecuador 89.52 2015
38 Tunisia 89.10 2012
39 Togo 88.46 2014
40 Uruguay 87.82 2009
41 Cameroon 87.70 2011
42 Namibia 87.66 1999
43 Ghana 87.31 2012
44 Zimbabwe 87.20 1999
45 Colombia 87.04 2014
46 Belize 85.45 2001
47 Panama 84.59 2014
48 Mexico 84.50 2013
49 Nicaragua 83.20 2012
50 Central African Republic 82.87 2010
51 Mozambique 82.70 2008
52 Philippines 82.50 2011
53 El Salvador 82.37 2013
54 Burundi 81.96 2010
55 Zambia 81.21 2008
56 Nigeria 79.54 2011
57 Vietnam 79.10 2012
58 Liberia 77.68 2010
59 Sudan 77.58 2014
60 Peru 77.40 2015
61 Guinea-Bissau 77.33 2014
62 Costa Rica 76.85 2011
63 Lesotho 76.45 2000
64 Cambodia 76.40 2012
65 Angola 75.30 2001
66 Romania 75.00 2000
66 Rwanda 75.00 2014
68 Yemen 73.88 2010
69 The Gambia 73.80 2008
70 Iraq 73.10 2011
71 Sierra Leone 71.90 2013
72 Benin 71.20 2012
73 Tanzania 69.34 2014
74 Kenya 66.84 2009
75 Jordan 66.80 2007
76 Turkey 66.50 2006
77 Timor-Leste 65.50 2007
78 Côte d'Ivoire 64.81 2012
79 Ethiopia 64.55 2011
80 Syrian Arab Republic 64.20 2006
81 Venezuela 62.86 2013
82 Guatemala 62.16 2015
83 Madagascar 57.00 2007
84 Chad 56.09 2015
85 Guinea 54.90 2012
86 Mauritania 54.77 2011
87 Honduras 54.36 2014
88 Somalia 53.90 2006
89 Afghanistan 53.83 2011
90 Indonesia 53.60 2010
91 Senegal 52.29 2015
92 Niger 49.60 2012
93 Egypt 48.00 2009
94 Mali 46.10 2013
95 Burkina Faso 44.38 2010
96 Bangladesh 35.27 2013
97 Pakistan 19.79 2011
98 India 17.40 2012
99 Lao PDR 12.07 2010
100 Morocco 9.50 1999

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Development Relevance: In most countries more boys are involved in employment, or the gender difference is small. However, girls are often more present in hidden or underreported forms of employment such as domestic service, and in almost all societies girls bear greater responsibility for household chores in their own homes, work that lies outside the System of National Accounts production boundary and is thus not considered in estimates of children's employment.

Limitations and Exceptions: Although efforts are made to harmonize the definition of employment and the questions on employment in survey questionnaires, significant differences remain in the survey instruments that collect data on children in employment and in the sampling design underlying the surveys. Differences exist not only across different household surveys in the same country but also across the same type of survey carried out in different countries, so estimates of working children are not fully comparable across countries. For detailed source information, see footnotes at each data point.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data are from household surveys by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and national statistical offices. The surveys yield data on education, employment, health, expenditure, and consumption indicators related to children's work. Since children's work is captured in the sense of "economic activity," the data refer to children in employment, a broader concept than child labor (see ILO 2009a for details on this distinction). Household survey data generally include information on work type - for example, whether a child is working for payment in cash or in kind or is involved in unpaid work, working for someone who is not a member of the household, or involved in any type of family work (on the farm or in a business). In line with the definition of economic activity adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, the threshold set by the 1993 UN System of National Accounts for classifying a person as employed is to have been engaged at least one hour in any activity relating to the production of goods and services during the reference period. Children seeking work are thus excluded. Economic activity covers all market production and certain nonmarket production, including production of goods for own use. It excludes unpaid household services (commonly called "household chores") - that is, the production of domestic and personal services by household members for a household's own consumption. Country surveys define the ages for child labor as 5-17. The data here have been recalculated to present statistics for children ages 7-14.

Periodicity: Annual