Employment in services (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The services sector consists of wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services, in accordance with divisions 6-9 (ISIC 2) or categories G-Q (ISIC 3) or categories G-U (ISIC 4).

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Luxembourg 88.50 2017
2 Hong Kong SAR, China 84.90 2017
3 Singapore 82.60 2017
4 Macao SAR, China 82.10 2017
5 Netherlands 81.90 2017
5 The Bahamas 81.90 2017
7 United States 81.30 2017
8 Israel 81.00 2017
9 Puerto Rico 80.50 2017
10 United Kingdom 80.40 2017
11 Jordan 80.20 2017
12 Brunei 80.10 2017
13 Sweden 79.90 2017
14 Samoa 79.80 2017
15 Cyprus 79.20 2017
16 Canada 78.40 2017
16 Denmark 78.40 2017
18 Iceland 78.20 2017
19 Barbados 77.90 2017
19 Malta 77.90 2017
21 Belgium 77.60 2017
21 Norway 77.60 2017
23 Ireland 77.40 2017
24 Spain 76.80 2017
24 France 76.80 2017
26 Australia 76.10 2017
26 Switzerland 76.10 2017
28 Fiji 75.80 2017
29 United Arab Emirates 75.40 2017
30 Cuba 75.30 2017
31 Montenegro 75.20 2017
32 Suriname 74.30 2017
33 Finland 73.80 2017
34 Argentina 73.10 2017
35 New Zealand 72.60 2017
36 Greece 72.10 2017
37 Saudi Arabia 71.40 2017
38 Germany 71.20 2017
39 Uruguay 70.80 2017
40 Korea 70.30 2017
41 Kuwait 70.10 2017
41 New Caledonia 70.10 2017
43 Dominican Republic 70.00 2017
44 Colombia 69.90 2017
45 Japan 69.80 2017
46 Latvia 69.70 2017
46 Austria 69.70 2017
48 Italy 69.40 2017
48 Lebanon 69.40 2017
50 Costa Rica 69.30 2017
51 Portugal 68.20 2017
52 Belize 67.90 2017
53 South Africa 67.70 2017
54 St. Lucia 67.60 2017
55 Mauritius 67.50 2017
55 Chile 67.50 2017
57 Estonia 67.30 2017
58 Jamaica 66.80 2017
58 Lithuania 66.80 2017
60 Russia 66.10 2017
61 Hungary 65.90 2017
61 Panama 65.90 2017
63 Bahrain 65.60 2017
64 Gabon 64.80 2017
65 Trinidad and Tobago 64.30 2017
65 São Tomé and Principe 64.30 2017
67 Bulgaria 64.10 2017
68 Croatia 64.00 2017
69 Equatorial Guinea 63.20 2017
69 Brazil 63.20 2017
71 Slovak Republic 62.20 2017
72 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 61.80 2017
73 Myanmar 61.70 2017
74 Kazakhstan 61.60 2017
75 Slovenia 61.50 2017
76 Nicaragua 61.40 2017
77 Mexico 61.30 2017
77 Venezuela 61.30 2017
77 Cabo Verde 61.30 2017
80 El Salvador 61.20 2017
81 Paraguay 61.00 2017
81 Swaziland 61.00 2017
83 Malaysia 60.90 2017
84 Czech Republic 60.50 2017
85 Ukraine 59.70 2017
86 Poland 59.50 2017
87 Botswana 59.40 2017
88 Tunisia 58.90 2017
89 Iraq 58.60 2017
90 Belarus 58.40 2017
91 Peru 58.30 2017
92 Angola 58.20 2017
93 Nigeria 57.40 2017
94 Namibia 56.30 2017
95 Guyana 56.20 2017
96 Serbia 56.10 2017
96 Philippines 56.10 2017
98 Libya 55.80 2017
99 Oman 55.40 2017
100 The Gambia 55.20 2017
101 Ecuador 55.10 2017
102 Algeria 54.70 2017
103 Macedonia 54.50 2017
104 Djibouti 53.20 2017
105 Turkey 52.90 2017
106 Bosnia and Herzegovina 51.70 2017
107 Mongolia 51.00 2017
108 Iran 50.90 2017
109 Mauritania 50.20 2017
110 Kyrgyz Republic 49.80 2017
111 Solomon Islands 49.50 2017
112 Bolivia 49.40 2017
112 Guatemala 49.40 2017
114 Egypt 49.30 2017
114 Armenia 49.30 2017
116 Yemen 49.20 2017
117 China 49.10 2017
117 Azerbaijan 49.10 2017
119 Honduras 49.00 2017
120 Timor-Leste 47.20 2017
121 Uzbekistan 47.10 2017
122 Romania 46.80 2017
122 Morocco 46.80 2017
124 Sudan 46.70 2017
125 Benin 46.60 2017
125 Sri Lanka 46.60 2017
127 Indonesia 46.20 2017
128 Qatar 44.70 2017
128 Turkmenistan 44.70 2017
130 Georgia 44.10 2017
131 Ghana 43.80 2017
132 Thailand 43.30 2017
133 Liberia 43.00 2017
134 Syrian Arab Republic 42.30 2017
135 Haiti 40.60 2017
136 Lesotho 40.30 2017
136 Moldova 40.30 2017
136 Albania 40.30 2017
136 Bangladesh 40.30 2017
140 Tonga 38.50 2017
141 Côte d'Ivoire 38.40 2017
142 Pakistan 38.10 2017
143 Cambodia 38.00 2017
144 Eritrea 35.40 2017
145 Zambia 35.30 2017
146 Vietnam 35.20 2017
147 Guinea-Bissau 34.10 2017
148 Bhutan 33.70 2017
149 Congo 33.50 2017
150 Comoros 32.80 2017
151 Vanuatu 31.80 2017
152 India 31.20 2017
153 Kenya 29.50 2017
153 Cameroon 29.50 2017
155 Tajikistan 29.40 2017
156 Dem. Rep. Congo 28.90 2017
157 Togo 28.70 2017
158 Mali 28.60 2017
159 Afghanistan 28.50 2017
160 Senegal 27.90 2017
161 Tanzania 26.70 2017
162 Papua New Guinea 26.00 2017
163 Sierra Leone 25.50 2017
164 Malawi 25.40 2017
165 Zimbabwe 25.20 2017
166 Central African Republic 23.40 2017
167 Niger 23.30 2017
168 Somalia 23.20 2017
169 Guinea 22.90 2017
170 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 21.80 2017
171 Chad 21.40 2017
172 Ethiopia 21.10 2017
173 Mozambique 21.00 2017
174 Uganda 20.50 2017
175 Rwanda 17.80 2017
176 Lao PDR 17.70 2017
177 Nepal 16.50 2017
177 Madagascar 16.50 2017
179 Burkina Faso 15.10 2017
180 Burundi 6.30 2017

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Development Relevance: Sectoral information is particularly useful in identifying broad shifts in employment and stages of development. In the textbook case of economic development, labour flows from agriculture and other labour-intensive primary activities to industry and finally to the services sector; in the process, workers migrate from rural to urban areas. The breakdown of the indicator by sex allows for analysis of gender segregation of employment by specific sector. Women may be drawn into lower-paying service activities that allow for more flexible work schedules thus making it easier to balance family responsibilities with work life. Segregation of women in certain sectors may also result from cultural attitudes that prevent them from entering industrial employment. Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus the economy's ability to adapt to change. This segregation is particularly harmful for women, who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job growth is centered in service occupations, where women have better chances, as has been the recent experience in many countries.

Limitations and Exceptions: There are many differences in how countries define and measure employment status, particularly members of the armed forces, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Where members of the armed forces are included, they are allocated to the service sector, causing that sector to be somewhat overstated relative to the service sector in economies where they are excluded. Where data are obtained from establishment surveys, data cover only employees; thus self-employed and unpaid family workers are excluded. In such cases the employment share of the agricultural sector is severely underreported. Caution should be also used where the data refer only to urban areas, which record little or no agricultural work. Moreover, the age group and area covered could differ by country or change over time within a country. For detailed information, consult the original source. Countries also take different approaches to the treatment of unemployed people. In most countries unemployed people with previous job experience are classified according to their last job. But in some countries the unemployed and people seeking their first job are not classifiable by economic activity. Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be fully comparable across countries. The ILO reports data by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2, revision 3, or revision 4. Broad classification such as employment by agriculture, industry, and services may obscure fundamental shifts within countries' industrial patterns. A slight majority of countries report economic activity according to the ISIC revision 3 instead of revision 2 or revision 4. The use of one classification or the other should not have a significant impact on the information for the employment of three broad sectors data.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies economic activity using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities, revision 2 (1968), revision 3 (1990), and revision 4 (2008). Because this classification is based on where work is performed (industry) rather than type of work performed (occupation), all of an enterprise's employees are classified under the same industry, regardless of their trade or occupation. The categories should sum to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differences are due to workers who are not classified by economic activity. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Data up to 2016 are estimates while data from 2017 are projections.