Employment in services (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The services sector consists of wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services, in accordance with divisions 6-9 (ISIC 2) or categories G-Q (ISIC 3) or categories G-U (ISIC 4).

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Luxembourg 88.24 2019
2 Hong Kong SAR, China 88.05 2019
3 Singapore 83.02 2019
4 Brunei 82.68 2019
5 Israel 81.81 2019
6 Puerto Rico 81.63 2019
7 Netherlands 81.63 2019
8 The Bahamas 81.32 2019
9 United Kingdom 80.89 2019
10 Macao SAR, China 80.73 2019
11 Cyprus 80.59 2019
12 Sweden 80.39 2019
13 Samoa 80.15 2019
14 Malta 79.69 2019
15 United States 79.41 2019
16 Denmark 79.37 2019
17 Iceland 79.18 2019
18 Canada 79.13 2019
19 Norway 78.89 2019
20 Belgium 78.40 2019
21 Australia 78.13 2019
22 Barbados 78.05 2019
23 Argentina 77.57 2019
24 France 77.28 2019
25 Switzerland 76.80 2019
26 Ireland 76.75 2019
27 Spain 76.02 2019
28 New Caledonia 75.55 2019
29 Montenegro 75.20 2019
30 Finland 74.50 2019
31 New Zealand 73.50 2019
32 United Arab Emirates 73.01 2019
33 Greece 72.88 2019
34 Kuwait 72.40 2019
35 Japan 72.24 2019
36 Jordan 71.87 2019
37 Germany 71.86 2019
38 Venezuela 71.84 2019
39 Uruguay 71.73 2019
40 South Africa 71.73 2019
41 Austria 71.67 2019
42 Dominican Republic 71.28 2019
43 Saudi Arabia 70.82 2019
44 Italy 70.66 2019
45 Korea 70.48 2019
46 Brazil 70.32 2019
47 Latvia 70.26 2019
48 Trinidad and Tobago 69.51 2019
49 Portugal 69.32 2019
50 Costa Rica 69.30 2019
51 Suriname 68.32 2019
52 Chile 68.20 2019
53 St. Lucia 67.95 2019
54 Jamaica 67.94 2019
55 Belize 67.92 2019
56 Lithuania 67.50 2019
57 Russia 67.30 2019
58 Panama 67.19 2019
59 Croatia 67.02 2019
60 Estonia 66.91 2019
61 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 66.12 2019
62 Mauritius 65.95 2019
63 Lebanon 65.76 2019
64 Libya 65.69 2019
65 Cuba 65.10 2019
66 Cabo Verde 64.75 2019
67 Colombia 64.46 2019
68 Hungary 63.89 2019
69 Kazakhstan 63.75 2019
70 Bahrain 63.74 2019
71 Bulgaria 63.44 2019
72 Eswatini 62.64 2019
73 Malaysia 61.82 2019
74 Slovenia 61.68 2019
75 Mexico 61.24 2019
76 Namibia 61.18 2019
77 Slovak Republic 60.54 2019
78 Ukraine 60.53 2019
79 Paraguay 60.14 2019
80 Algeria 60.11 2019
81 El Salvador 59.94 2019
82 Czech Republic 59.58 2019
83 Botswana 59.21 2019
84 Oman 59.13 2019
85 Belarus 58.78 2019
86 São Tomé and Principe 58.72 2019
87 Poland 58.61 2019
88 Serbia 57.96 2019
89 Iraq 57.81 2019
90 Peru 57.15 2019
91 Philippines 56.66 2019
92 Syrian Arab Republic 56.50 2019
93 Guyana 56.06 2019
94 Turkey 54.82 2019
95 Senegal 54.58 2019
96 The Gambia 54.44 2019
97 Ecuador 54.20 2019
98 Bosnia and Herzegovina 53.91 2019
99 Yemen 53.90 2019
100 North Macedonia 53.65 2019
101 Gabon 52.70 2019
102 Nicaragua 52.52 2019
103 Mongolia 52.45 2019
104 Tunisia 52.21 2019
105 Nigeria 52.07 2019
106 Kyrgyz Republic 51.43 2019
107 Moldova 51.36 2019
108 Armenia 51.10 2019
109 Iran 50.88 2019
110 Bolivia 50.30 2019
111 Guatemala 50.19 2019
112 Azerbaijan 49.65 2019
113 Egypt 48.72 2019
114 Ghana 47.88 2019
115 Honduras 47.84 2019
116 Fiji 47.76 2019
117 Indonesia 47.76 2019
118 Romania 47.55 2019
119 Côte d'Ivoire 46.20 2019
120 Togo 46.16 2019
121 Thailand 46.09 2019
122 Sri Lanka 46.04 2019
123 China 45.17 2019
124 Qatar 44.31 2019
125 Georgia 44.06 2019
126 Afghanistan 43.88 2019
127 Turkmenistan 43.68 2019
128 Cambodia 42.92 2019
129 Albania 42.88 2019
129 Angola 42.88 2019
131 Liberia 42.76 2019
132 Djibouti 42.47 2019
133 Equatorial Guinea 42.25 2019
134 Sudan 42.00 2019
135 Congo 41.95 2019
136 Timor-Leste 40.65 2019
137 Morocco 40.52 2019
138 Haiti 40.05 2019
139 Tonga 39.92 2019
140 Cameroon 39.85 2019
141 Bangladesh 39.76 2019
142 Benin 39.43 2019
143 Burkina Faso 38.44 2019
144 Uzbekistan 36.44 2019
145 Sierra Leone 35.75 2019
146 Zambia 35.64 2019
147 Kenya 35.30 2019
148 Pakistan 34.96 2019
149 Vietnam 34.72 2019
150 Myanmar 34.26 2019
151 Mauritania 33.85 2019
152 Bhutan 33.81 2019
153 Vanuatu 32.50 2019
154 Tajikistan 32.37 2019
155 India 31.90 2019
156 Solomon Islands 29.74 2019
157 Comoros 29.24 2019
158 Eritrea 29.13 2019
159 Mali 28.46 2019
160 Papua New Guinea 27.57 2019
161 Tanzania 26.95 2019
162 Guinea 26.86 2019
163 Zimbabwe 25.46 2019
164 Rwanda 24.84 2019
165 Madagascar 24.62 2019
166 Lesotho 23.33 2019
167 Guinea-Bissau 23.32 2019
168 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 23.24 2019
169 Lao PDR 23.16 2019
170 Ethiopia 22.11 2019
171 Uganda 22.09 2019
172 Somalia 21.17 2019
173 Dem. Rep. Congo 20.97 2019
174 Mozambique 20.61 2019
175 Malawi 19.91 2019
176 Central African Republic 18.18 2019
177 Nepal 17.06 2019
178 Niger 16.09 2019
179 Chad 15.48 2019
180 Burundi 5.92 2019

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Development Relevance: Sectoral information is particularly useful in identifying broad shifts in employment and stages of development. In the textbook case of economic development, labour flows from agriculture and other labour-intensive primary activities to industry and finally to the services sector; in the process, workers migrate from rural to urban areas. The breakdown of the indicator by sex allows for analysis of gender segregation of employment by specific sector. Women may be drawn into lower-paying service activities that allow for more flexible work schedules thus making it easier to balance family responsibilities with work life. Segregation of women in certain sectors may also result from cultural attitudes that prevent them from entering industrial employment. Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus the economy's ability to adapt to change. This segregation is particularly harmful for women, who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job growth is centered in service occupations, where women have better chances, as has been the recent experience in many countries.

Limitations and Exceptions: There are many differences in how countries define and measure employment status, particularly members of the armed forces, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Where members of the armed forces are included, they are allocated to the service sector, causing that sector to be somewhat overstated relative to the service sector in economies where they are excluded. Where data are obtained from establishment surveys, data cover only employees; thus self-employed and unpaid family workers are excluded. In such cases the employment share of the agricultural sector is severely underreported. Caution should be also used where the data refer only to urban areas, which record little or no agricultural work. Moreover, the age group and area covered could differ by country or change over time within a country. For detailed information, consult the original source. Countries also take different approaches to the treatment of unemployed people. In most countries unemployed people with previous job experience are classified according to their last job. But in some countries the unemployed and people seeking their first job are not classifiable by economic activity. Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be fully comparable across countries. The ILO reports data by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2, revision 3, or revision 4. Broad classification such as employment by agriculture, industry, and services may obscure fundamental shifts within countries' industrial patterns. A slight majority of countries report economic activity according to the ISIC revision 3 instead of revision 2 or revision 4. The use of one classification or the other should not have a significant impact on the information for the employment of three broad sectors data.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies economic activity using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities, revision 2 (1968), revision 3 (1990), and revision 4 (2008). Because this classification is based on where work is performed (industry) rather than type of work performed (occupation), all of an enterprise's employees are classified under the same industry, regardless of their trade or occupation. The categories should sum to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differences are due to workers who are not classified by economic activity. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual