Employment in services, male (% of male employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The services sector consists of wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services, in accordance with divisions 6-9 (ISIC 2) or categories G-Q (ISIC 3) or categories G-U (ISIC 4).

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Luxembourg 81.50 2019
2 Hong Kong SAR, China 80.30 2019
3 Singapore 78.88 2019
4 Brunei 76.68 2019
5 Puerto Rico 74.83 2019
6 Samoa 74.80 2019
7 Israel 72.82 2019
8 Malta 72.45 2019
9 Netherlands 72.23 2019
10 Macao SAR, China 71.27 2019
11 United Kingdom 71.21 2019
12 Cyprus 70.64 2019
13 Sweden 69.62 2019
14 Jordan 69.60 2019
15 United States 69.59 2019
16 Denmark 69.53 2019
17 United Arab Emirates 69.46 2019
18 Canada 68.65 2019
19 The Bahamas 68.60 2019
20 Iceland 68.22 2019
21 Argentina 68.08 2019
22 Belgium 67.77 2019
23 Switzerland 67.40 2019
24 Greece 67.30 2019
25 Australia 67.12 2019
26 Barbados 67.07 2019
27 France 66.96 2019
28 Norway 66.66 2019
29 Montenegro 66.59 2019
30 Saudi Arabia 66.39 2019
31 Ireland 65.39 2019
32 Spain 65.16 2019
33 Japan 63.72 2019
34 Lebanon 62.93 2019
35 New Caledonia 62.89 2019
36 Kuwait 62.07 2019
37 Korea 61.89 2019
38 South Africa 61.88 2019
39 New Zealand 61.80 2019
40 Venezuela 61.56 2019
41 Libya 60.93 2019
42 Eswatini 60.74 2019
43 Finland 60.50 2019
44 Italy 60.12 2019
45 Mauritius 59.91 2019
46 Germany 59.74 2019
47 Austria 59.63 2019
48 Dominican Republic 59.59 2019
49 Costa Rica 59.35 2019
50 Uruguay 59.29 2019
51 Brazil 59.26 2019
52 Gabon 59.15 2019
53 Portugal 58.26 2019
54 Panama 57.61 2019
55 Trinidad and Tobago 57.28 2019
56 Algeria 57.24 2019
57 Bahrain 57.06 2019
58 Suriname 57.02 2019
59 Chile 56.98 2019
60 Latvia 56.84 2019
61 St. Lucia 56.76 2019
62 Belize 56.51 2019
63 Iraq 56.01 2019
64 Yemen 55.90 2019
65 Russia 54.98 2019
66 Cuba 54.96 2019
67 Lithuania 54.96 2019
68 Bulgaria 54.73 2019
69 Oman 54.67 2019
70 Croatia 54.45 2019
71 Jamaica 54.40 2019
72 Malaysia 54.31 2019
73 Colombia 54.19 2019
74 Kazakhstan 54.10 2019
75 Turkey 53.80 2019
76 Syrian Arab Republic 53.73 2019
77 Estonia 53.35 2019
78 Hungary 52.25 2019
79 Afghanistan 52.19 2019
80 Tunisia 51.20 2019
81 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 51.07 2019
82 Cabo Verde 51.02 2019
83 Mexico 51.02 2019
84 The Gambia 50.83 2019
85 Iran 50.22 2019
86 Peru 49.98 2019
87 Serbia 49.45 2019
88 North Macedonia 49.42 2019
89 Paraguay 49.24 2019
90 Slovenia 48.72 2019
91 Ukraine 48.57 2019
92 Botswana 48.28 2019
93 Namibia 48.15 2019
94 Czech Republic 47.65 2019
95 Azerbaijan 47.12 2019
96 Armenia 47.09 2019
97 Sri Lanka 46.96 2019
98 Ecuador 46.93 2019
99 El Salvador 46.69 2019
100 Egypt 46.62 2019
101 Bangladesh 46.40 2019
102 Senegal 46.36 2019
103 Slovak Republic 46.08 2019
104 São Tomé and Principe 45.66 2019
105 Poland 45.64 2019
106 Bosnia and Herzegovina 45.47 2019
107 Kyrgyz Republic 45.04 2019
108 Philippines 45.03 2019
109 Fiji 44.95 2019
110 Morocco 44.01 2019
111 Mongolia 43.94 2019
112 Belarus 43.92 2019
113 Nigeria 43.89 2019
114 Sudan 43.34 2019
115 Moldova 43.07 2019
116 Indonesia 42.85 2019
117 China 42.80 2019
118 Albania 42.76 2019
119 Congo 42.56 2019
120 Guyana 42.25 2019
121 Togo 42.19 2019
122 Angola 42.13 2019
123 Bolivia 41.94 2019
124 Ghana 41.67 2019
125 Djibouti 41.67 2019
126 Cameroon 41.45 2019
127 Thailand 40.91 2019
128 Pakistan 40.88 2019
129 Cambodia 40.59 2019
130 Romania 40.43 2019
131 Timor-Leste 39.50 2019
132 Georgia 39.48 2019
133 Equatorial Guinea 38.96 2019
134 Turkmenistan 38.95 2019
135 Côte d'Ivoire 38.82 2019
136 Tonga 38.78 2019
137 Guatemala 38.61 2019
138 Bhutan 38.60 2019
139 Liberia 37.40 2019
140 Zambia 36.96 2019
141 Kenya 36.27 2019
142 Nicaragua 36.27 2019
143 Qatar 36.24 2019
144 Tajikistan 35.23 2019
145 Honduras 34.72 2019
146 India 33.90 2019
147 Burkina Faso 32.76 2019
148 Comoros 32.64 2019
149 Vietnam 31.90 2019
150 Mauritania 31.52 2019
151 Uzbekistan 30.84 2019
152 Vanuatu 30.37 2019
153 Myanmar 30.28 2019
154 Benin 30.20 2019
155 Eritrea 29.71 2019
156 Rwanda 29.29 2019
157 Sierra Leone 29.24 2019
158 Solomon Islands 28.80 2019
159 Papua New Guinea 26.76 2019
160 Tanzania 26.14 2019
161 Guinea 26.07 2019
162 Mozambique 25.60 2019
163 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 25.43 2019
164 Mali 25.29 2019
165 Zimbabwe 24.71 2019
166 Uganda 23.42 2019
167 Haiti 23.14 2019
168 Guinea-Bissau 23.01 2019
169 Dem. Rep. Congo 22.87 2019
170 Malawi 22.19 2019
171 Lao PDR 22.18 2019
172 Somalia 21.48 2019
173 Madagascar 21.36 2019
174 Nepal 20.92 2019
175 Central African Republic 18.24 2019
176 Lesotho 16.35 2019
177 Niger 15.98 2019
178 Chad 15.63 2019
179 Ethiopia 15.28 2019
180 Burundi 9.26 2019

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Development Relevance: Sectoral information is particularly useful in identifying broad shifts in employment and stages of development. In the textbook case of economic development, labour flows from agriculture and other labour-intensive primary activities to industry and finally to the services sector; in the process, workers migrate from rural to urban areas. The breakdown of the indicator by sex allows for analysis of gender segregation of employment by specific sector. Women may be drawn into lower-paying service activities that allow for more flexible work schedules thus making it easier to balance family responsibilities with work life. Segregation of women in certain sectors may also result from cultural attitudes that prevent them from entering industrial employment. Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus the economy's ability to adapt to change. This segregation is particularly harmful for women, who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job growth is centered in service occupations, where women have better chances, as has been the recent experience in many countries.

Limitations and Exceptions: There are many differences in how countries define and measure employment status, particularly members of the armed forces, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Where members of the armed forces are included, they are allocated to the service sector, causing that sector to be somewhat overstated relative to the service sector in economies where they are excluded. Where data are obtained from establishment surveys, data cover only employees; thus self-employed and unpaid family workers are excluded. In such cases the employment share of the agricultural sector is severely underreported. Caution should be also used where the data refer only to urban areas, which record little or no agricultural work. Moreover, the age group and area covered could differ by country or change over time within a country. For detailed information, consult the original source. Countries also take different approaches to the treatment of unemployed people. In most countries unemployed people with previous job experience are classified according to their last job. But in some countries the unemployed and people seeking their first job are not classifiable by economic activity. Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be fully comparable across countries. The ILO reports data by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2, revision 3, or revision 4. Broad classification such as employment by agriculture, industry, and services may obscure fundamental shifts within countries' industrial patterns. A slight majority of countries report economic activity according to the ISIC revision 3 instead of revision 2 or revision 4. The use of one classification or the other should not have a significant impact on the information for the employment of three broad sectors data.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies economic activity using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities, revision 2 (1968), revision 3 (1990), and revision 4 (2008). Because this classification is based on where work is performed (industry) rather than type of work performed (occupation), all of an enterprise's employees are classified under the same industry, regardless of their trade or occupation. The categories should sum to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differences are due to workers who are not classified by economic activity. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual