Employment in services, female (% of female employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The services sector consists of wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services, in accordance with divisions 6-9 (ISIC 2) or categories G-Q (ISIC 3) or categories G-U (ISIC 4).

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Saudi Arabia 98.00 2017
2 Luxembourg 95.50 2017
3 The Bahamas 95.30 2017
4 United Arab Emirates 95.20 2017
5 Oman 94.70 2017
6 Hong Kong SAR, China 93.90 2017
7 Kuwait 93.70 2017
7 Suriname 93.70 2017
9 Puerto Rico 93.60 2017
10 Qatar 93.40 2017
11 Lebanon 93.20 2017
12 Netherlands 92.90 2017
13 Sweden 92.30 2017
14 Bahrain 92.20 2017
14 United States 92.20 2017
16 United Kingdom 91.90 2017
17 Ireland 91.70 2017
17 Norway 91.70 2017
19 Cyprus 91.60 2017
19 Israel 91.60 2017
21 Argentina 91.40 2017
22 Macao SAR, China 91.10 2017
22 Belgium 91.10 2017
24 Iceland 90.80 2017
25 Jordan 90.60 2017
26 Malta 90.40 2017
27 Australia 90.20 2017
27 Canada 90.20 2017
29 Denmark 90.10 2017
30 Spain 89.90 2017
31 Samoa 89.60 2017
32 Barbados 89.10 2017
33 Finland 89.00 2017
34 Trinidad and Tobago 88.90 2017
35 Dominican Republic 88.80 2017
36 France 88.70 2017
37 Brunei 88.20 2017
38 Cuba 88.10 2017
39 Singapore 87.80 2017
40 Belize 87.20 2017
41 Costa Rica 87.10 2017
42 Switzerland 87.00 2017
43 New Zealand 86.60 2017
44 Jamaica 86.40 2017
44 Uruguay 86.40 2017
46 Venezuela 86.10 2017
47 New Caledonia 85.60 2017
48 Germany 85.50 2017
49 Colombia 85.20 2017
50 Montenegro 85.00 2017
51 Italy 84.20 2017
51 South Africa 84.20 2017
53 Latvia 83.80 2017
53 Chile 83.80 2017
55 Panama 83.50 2017
56 Austria 83.10 2017
57 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 82.80 2017
57 St. Lucia 82.80 2017
59 Guyana 82.30 2017
60 Nicaragua 81.70 2017
61 Korea 81.60 2017
62 Japan 81.30 2017
63 Estonia 80.80 2017
64 Greece 80.40 2017
65 São Tomé and Principe 79.80 2017
66 Mexico 79.70 2017
66 Slovak Republic 79.70 2017
68 Portugal 79.60 2017
69 Hungary 79.30 2017
70 El Salvador 78.70 2017
71 Russia 78.60 2017
72 Brazil 78.20 2017
73 Lithuania 78.10 2017
74 Mauritius 77.70 2017
75 Croatia 77.50 2017
76 Paraguay 77.40 2017
77 Fiji 76.00 2017
77 Czech Republic 76.00 2017
79 Slovenia 75.10 2017
80 Poland 74.80 2017
81 Guatemala 74.40 2017
82 Malaysia 73.60 2017
83 Bulgaria 73.50 2017
84 Philippines 72.70 2017
85 Angola 72.30 2017
86 Honduras 72.00 2017
87 Kazakhstan 71.70 2017
88 Peru 71.00 2017
89 Nigeria 70.00 2017
90 Botswana 69.90 2017
91 Ecuador 69.00 2017
92 Gabon 67.70 2017
93 Namibia 67.50 2017
94 Serbia 66.80 2017
95 Tunisia 65.50 2017
96 Ukraine 65.20 2017
97 Bosnia and Herzegovina 64.50 2017
98 Bolivia 64.30 2017
99 Belarus 63.40 2017
100 Macedonia 61.60 2017
101 Algeria 61.40 2017
102 Benin 59.80 2017
103 Cabo Verde 59.20 2017
104 Mongolia 59.10 2017
105 Kyrgyz Republic 57.60 2017
106 Equatorial Guinea 57.50 2017
107 Haiti 57.00 2017
108 Myanmar 56.90 2017
109 Syrian Arab Republic 56.40 2017
110 Romania 55.50 2017
111 Lesotho 55.10 2017
112 Iran 55.00 2017
113 The Gambia 54.60 2017
114 Indonesia 54.20 2017
115 Turkey 54.10 2017
116 Egypt 53.80 2017
116 Swaziland 53.80 2017
118 Djibouti 53.20 2017
119 Armenia 53.10 2017
120 China 52.40 2017
121 Iraq 52.30 2017
122 Morocco 52.20 2017
123 Uzbekistan 52.00 2017
124 Azerbaijan 51.50 2017
125 Ghana 51.20 2017
126 Georgia 50.90 2017
127 Thailand 49.10 2017
128 Liberia 48.20 2017
129 Libya 47.30 2017
130 Solomon Islands 47.20 2017
131 Yemen 46.60 2017
132 Sudan 46.40 2017
133 Turkmenistan 45.00 2017
134 Tonga 44.20 2017
135 Sri Lanka 44.00 2017
136 Cambodia 41.30 2017
137 Albania 41.20 2017
138 Moldova 40.70 2017
139 Vietnam 38.90 2017
140 Mauritania 36.90 2017
141 Timor-Leste 36.70 2017
142 Mali 35.60 2017
143 Senegal 33.90 2017
144 Vanuatu 33.40 2017
145 Zambia 29.90 2017
146 Ethiopia 29.50 2017
147 Eritrea 29.10 2017
148 Tanzania 27.20 2017
149 Sierra Leone 26.60 2017
149 Guinea-Bissau 26.60 2017
149 Bangladesh 26.60 2017
152 Zimbabwe 26.40 2017
153 Bhutan 26.30 2017
154 Cameroon 26.20 2017
155 Congo 26.10 2017
156 Côte d'Ivoire 24.60 2017
157 Togo 24.00 2017
158 Tajikistan 23.50 2017
159 Comoros 23.30 2017
160 Dem. Rep. Congo 22.70 2017
161 Kenya 22.40 2017
162 Papua New Guinea 22.20 2017
163 India 21.80 2017
164 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 21.70 2017
165 Niger 21.50 2017
166 Guinea 21.00 2017
167 Pakistan 20.90 2017
168 Uganda 19.50 2017
169 Madagascar 19.10 2017
170 Malawi 18.40 2017
171 Chad 17.30 2017
172 Central African Republic 16.70 2017
173 Somalia 14.80 2017
174 Lao PDR 14.50 2017
175 Mozambique 14.40 2017
176 Burkina Faso 14.20 2017
177 Afghanistan 12.80 2017
178 Rwanda 11.80 2017
179 Nepal 10.40 2017
180 Burundi 3.30 2017

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Development Relevance: Sectoral information is particularly useful in identifying broad shifts in employment and stages of development. In the textbook case of economic development, labour flows from agriculture and other labour-intensive primary activities to industry and finally to the services sector; in the process, workers migrate from rural to urban areas. The breakdown of the indicator by sex allows for analysis of gender segregation of employment by specific sector. Women may be drawn into lower-paying service activities that allow for more flexible work schedules thus making it easier to balance family responsibilities with work life. Segregation of women in certain sectors may also result from cultural attitudes that prevent them from entering industrial employment. Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus the economy's ability to adapt to change. This segregation is particularly harmful for women, who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job growth is centered in service occupations, where women have better chances, as has been the recent experience in many countries.

Limitations and Exceptions: There are many differences in how countries define and measure employment status, particularly members of the armed forces, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Where members of the armed forces are included, they are allocated to the service sector, causing that sector to be somewhat overstated relative to the service sector in economies where they are excluded. Where data are obtained from establishment surveys, data cover only employees; thus self-employed and unpaid family workers are excluded. In such cases the employment share of the agricultural sector is severely underreported. Caution should be also used where the data refer only to urban areas, which record little or no agricultural work. Moreover, the age group and area covered could differ by country or change over time within a country. For detailed information, consult the original source. Countries also take different approaches to the treatment of unemployed people. In most countries unemployed people with previous job experience are classified according to their last job. But in some countries the unemployed and people seeking their first job are not classifiable by economic activity. Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be fully comparable across countries. The ILO reports data by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2, revision 3, or revision 4. Broad classification such as employment by agriculture, industry, and services may obscure fundamental shifts within countries' industrial patterns. A slight majority of countries report economic activity according to the ISIC revision 3 instead of revision 2 or revision 4. The use of one classification or the other should not have a significant impact on the information for the employment of three broad sectors data.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies economic activity using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities, revision 2 (1968), revision 3 (1990), and revision 4 (2008). Because this classification is based on where work is performed (industry) rather than type of work performed (occupation), all of an enterprise's employees are classified under the same industry, regardless of their trade or occupation. The categories should sum to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differences are due to workers who are not classified by economic activity. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Data up to 2016 are estimates while data from 2017 are projections.