Informal employment (% of total non-agricultural employment) - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Employment in the informal economy as a percentage of total non-agricultural employment. It basically includes all jobs in unregistered and/or small-scale private unincorporated enterprises that produce goods or services meant for sale or barter. Self-employed street vendors, taxi drivers and home-base workers, regardless of size, are all considered enterprises. However, agricultural and related activities, households producing goods exclusively for their own use (e.g. subsistence farming, domestic housework, care work, and employment of paid domestic workers), and volunteer services rendered to the community are excluded.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in December 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Dem. Rep. Congo 96.25 2005
2 Benin 94.54 2011
3 Togo 91.84 2014
4 Comoros 91.18 2014
5 Mali 90.49 2016
6 Senegal 90.44 2015
7 Liberia 90.15 2014
8 Burundi 89.44 2014
9 Mozambique 86.71 2015
10 Niger 86.35 2011
11 Côte d'Ivoire 84.83 2017
12 Madagascar 83.86 2015
13 Uganda 83.24 2012
14 Ghana 83.18 2015
15 Cameroon 82.39 2014
16 Sudan 77.31 2011
17 Tanzania 71.79 2014
18 Rwanda 68.69 2018
19 The Gambia 68.19 2012
20 Angola 68.10 2011
21 Zambia 65.38 2017
22 Zimbabwe 62.50 2011
23 Cabo Verde 57.81 2015
24 Mauritius 53.53 2018
25 Eswatini 53.40 2016
26 Egypt 52.89 2017
27 Namibia 46.97 2018
28 South Africa 35.15 2018

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Limitations and Exceptions: There are limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country, due to differences in definitions and methodology of data collection. For example, informal sector enterprises refer to non-registered enterprises in some countries but registration requirements can vary from country to country. Others apply the employment size criterion only (which may vary from country to country). For detailed information on definitions and coverage, see footnotes.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: There are wide variations in definitions and methodology of data collection. In addition to employment in the informal economy, informal employment within the formal sector should be also taken into account. Casual, short term, and seasonal workers, for example, could be informally employed — lacking social protection, health benefits, legal status, rights and freedom of association. Some countries now provide data according to the guidelines, adopted by the 17th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (2003); Informal employment as the total number of informal jobs, whether carried out in formal sector enterprises, informal sector enterprises, or households, during a given reference period.

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Harmonized series