Wage and salaried workers, male (% of male employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as "paid employment jobs," where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Qatar 99.59 2019
2 Kuwait 97.76 2019
3 Bahrain 97.33 2019
4 United Arab Emirates 96.40 2019
5 Oman 96.25 2019
6 Saudi Arabia 94.62 2019
7 Belarus 94.09 2019
8 United States 92.98 2019
9 Libya 92.86 2019
10 Russia 92.37 2019
11 Norway 91.49 2019
12 Macao SAR, China 91.19 2019
13 Brunei 91.03 2019
14 Cuba 89.49 2019
15 Luxembourg 89.48 2019
16 Denmark 89.17 2019
17 Japan 88.51 2019
18 Hong Kong SAR, China 87.98 2019
19 Hungary 87.88 2019
20 Germany 87.55 2019
21 Sweden 86.48 2019
22 Estonia 86.40 2019
23 France 85.69 2019
24 Bulgaria 85.66 2019
25 Croatia 85.59 2019
26 Austria 85.55 2019
27 Lithuania 85.36 2019
28 Latvia 85.21 2019
29 Israel 84.72 2019
30 Iceland 84.52 2019
31 Cyprus 84.03 2019
32 Suriname 83.97 2019
33 Switzerland 83.48 2019
34 Jordan 83.42 2019
35 Slovenia 83.21 2019
36 Finland 83.07 2019
37 South Africa 83.02 2019
38 Belgium 82.69 2019
39 Ukraine 82.38 2019
40 Canada 81.75 2019
41 Singapore 81.28 2019
42 Malta 81.16 2019
43 Slovak Republic 80.97 2019
44 United Kingdom 80.91 2019
45 The Bahamas 80.54 2019
46 Netherlands 80.52 2019
47 New Caledonia 80.25 2019
48 Spain 80.05 2019
49 Czech Republic 79.66 2019
50 Australia 79.31 2019
51 Portugal 79.00 2019
52 Barbados 78.66 2019
53 Ireland 78.41 2019
54 New Zealand 78.38 2019
55 Puerto Rico 76.60 2019
56 Poland 76.28 2019
57 Namibia 75.95 2019
58 Mauritius 75.93 2019
59 Bosnia and Herzegovina 75.74 2019
60 Malaysia 75.34 2019
61 Botswana 74.34 2019
62 Costa Rica 73.88 2019
63 North Macedonia 73.72 2019
64 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 73.03 2019
65 Montenegro 73.02 2019
66 Korea 72.87 2019
67 Turkmenistan 72.64 2019
68 Italy 72.43 2019
69 Romania 72.41 2019
70 Iraq 72.31 2019
71 Argentina 71.94 2019
72 Kazakhstan 71.62 2019
73 Chile 71.00 2019
74 Trinidad and Tobago 70.95 2019
75 Gabon 69.94 2019
76 Eswatini 69.93 2019
77 Egypt 69.49 2019
78 Tunisia 69.37 2019
79 Turkey 69.15 2019
80 Uruguay 69.09 2019
81 Mexico 68.78 2019
82 Algeria 68.18 2019
83 Guatemala 67.58 2019
84 Cabo Verde 66.96 2019
85 Serbia 66.39 2019
86 Belize 66.04 2019
87 El Salvador 65.62 2019
88 Samoa 64.74 2019
89 Philippines 64.40 2019
90 Brazil 63.53 2019
91 Panama 63.34 2019
92 Venezuela 62.79 2019
93 Greece 62.66 2019
94 Moldova 61.26 2019
95 Kyrgyz Republic 60.63 2019
96 St. Lucia 60.20 2019
97 Sri Lanka 59.33 2019
98 Uzbekistan 58.87 2019
99 Nicaragua 58.38 2019
100 Fiji 58.35 2019
101 Armenia 58.16 2019
102 Syrian Arab Republic 58.10 2019
103 Paraguay 57.52 2019
104 Ecuador 57.36 2019
105 Djibouti 57.02 2019
106 Lebanon 56.91 2019
107 São Tomé and Principe 55.87 2019
108 Jamaica 55.80 2019
109 China 54.94 2019
110 Cambodia 54.91 2019
111 Iran 54.86 2019
112 Sudan 54.27 2019
113 Indonesia 54.14 2019
114 Kenya 53.75 2019
115 Morocco 52.77 2019
116 Honduras 51.55 2019
117 Tajikistan 51.17 2019
118 Mauritania 50.84 2019
119 Thailand 50.33 2019
120 Equatorial Guinea 50.00 2019
121 Peru 49.95 2019
122 Georgia 48.79 2019
123 Vietnam 48.68 2019
124 Yemen 48.40 2019
125 Tonga 48.38 2019
126 Dominican Republic 47.97 2019
127 Colombia 47.72 2019
128 Mongolia 47.22 2019
129 Malawi 44.76 2019
130 Bangladesh 44.11 2019
131 Pakistan 43.69 2019
132 Zimbabwe 43.18 2019
133 Guyana 42.47 2019
134 Albania 42.09 2019
135 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 41.85 2019
136 Rwanda 41.72 2019
137 Angola 40.56 2019
138 Bolivia 40.11 2019
139 Comoros 40.05 2019
140 Senegal 39.13 2019
141 Lesotho 38.33 2019
142 Myanmar 38.00 2019
143 Bhutan 37.51 2019
144 Azerbaijan 36.26 2019
145 Congo 34.69 2019
146 The Gambia 34.46 2019
147 Côte d'Ivoire 34.07 2019
148 Ghana 33.32 2019
149 Zambia 31.46 2019
150 Cameroon 31.35 2019
151 Timor-Leste 31.00 2019
152 Vanuatu 31.00 2019
153 Nepal 30.86 2019
154 Liberia 30.30 2019
155 Togo 28.47 2019
156 Uganda 28.29 2019
157 Papua New Guinea 28.14 2019
158 Eritrea 28.05 2019
159 Guinea-Bissau 27.90 2019
160 Dem. Rep. Congo 27.75 2019
161 Lao PDR 25.66 2019
162 Mozambique 24.02 2019
163 Nigeria 23.22 2019
164 Somalia 23.14 2019
165 India 22.80 2019
166 Solomon Islands 21.80 2019
167 Tanzania 19.09 2019
168 Sierra Leone 17.40 2019
169 Benin 16.52 2019
170 Ethiopia 16.52 2019
171 Haiti 15.79 2019
172 Burkina Faso 15.64 2019
173 Guinea 13.96 2019
174 Mali 13.79 2019
175 Madagascar 13.57 2019
176 Afghanistan 13.44 2019
177 Niger 11.48 2019
178 Chad 11.46 2019
179 Central African Republic 8.02 2019
180 Burundi 7.89 2019

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Development Relevance: Breaking down employment information by status in employment provides a statistical basis for describing workers' behaviour and conditions of work, and for defining an individual's socio-economic group. A high proportion of wage and salaried workers in a country can signify advanced economic development. If the proportion of own-account workers (self-employed without hired employees) is sizeable, it may be an indication of a large agriculture sector and low growth in the formal economy. A high proportion of contributing family workers — generally unpaid, although compensation might come indirectly in the form of family income — may indicate weak development, little job growth, and often a large rural economy. Each status group faces different economic risks, and contributing family workers and own-account workers are the most vulnerable - and therefore the most likely to fall into poverty. They are the least likely to have formal work arrangements, are the least likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against economic shocks, and often are incapable of generating sufficient savings to offset these shocks.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. Due to differences in definitions and coverage across countries, there are limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Estimates of women in employment are not comparable internationally, reflecting that demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether women's activities are regarded as economic.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The indicator of status in employment distinguishes between two categories of the total employed. These are: (a) wage and salaried workers (also known as employees); and (b) self-employed workers. Self-employed group is broken down in the subcategories: self-employed workers with employees (employers), self-employed workers without employees (own-account workers), members of producers' cooperatives and contributing family workers (also known as unpaid family workers). Vulnerable employment refers to the sum of contributing family workers and own-account workers. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual