Wage and salaried workers, female (% of female employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as "paid employment jobs," where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Qatar 99.59 2019
2 Kuwait 99.39 2019
3 Saudi Arabia 98.65 2019
4 United Arab Emirates 97.61 2019
5 Belarus 97.18 2019
6 Bahrain 96.84 2019
7 Jordan 96.73 2019
8 Macao SAR, China 96.51 2019
9 Norway 95.74 2019
10 Oman 95.57 2019
11 Libya 95.27 2019
12 United States 94.83 2019
13 Hong Kong SAR, China 94.78 2019
14 Denmark 94.74 2019
15 Russia 94.56 2019
16 Sweden 94.24 2019
17 Estonia 93.62 2019
18 Cuba 92.89 2019
19 Germany 92.48 2019
20 Iceland 92.38 2019
21 Ireland 92.36 2019
22 Malta 92.25 2019
23 Puerto Rico 91.95 2019
24 Hungary 91.85 2019
25 Brunei 91.64 2019
26 France 91.51 2019
27 The Bahamas 91.51 2019
28 Luxembourg 91.38 2019
29 Israel 91.19 2019
30 Japan 91.15 2019
31 Finland 90.99 2019
32 Bulgaria 90.98 2019
33 Lithuania 90.72 2019
34 Singapore 90.58 2019
35 Austria 90.26 2019
36 Croatia 90.04 2019
37 Cyprus 89.94 2019
38 Latvia 89.70 2019
39 Slovak Republic 89.63 2019
40 Suriname 89.43 2019
41 Belgium 89.37 2019
42 United Kingdom 89.11 2019
43 Slovenia 88.70 2019
44 Barbados 88.20 2019
45 Canada 88.16 2019
46 Spain 87.88 2019
47 Australia 87.56 2019
48 Switzerland 87.30 2019
49 Portugal 87.28 2019
50 Czech Republic 87.26 2019
51 South Africa 87.14 2019
52 Netherlands 86.96 2019
53 New Caledonia 86.59 2019
54 Ukraine 86.42 2019
55 Mauritius 85.21 2019
56 New Zealand 85.06 2019
57 Montenegro 84.91 2019
58 Trinidad and Tobago 84.27 2019
59 Poland 84.16 2019
60 Lebanon 83.16 2019
61 Italy 83.07 2019
62 Tunisia 81.63 2019
63 Syrian Arab Republic 81.38 2019
64 North Macedonia 80.70 2019
65 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 80.59 2019
66 Costa Rica 79.39 2019
67 Argentina 78.62 2019
68 Korea 77.58 2019
69 Turkmenistan 77.48 2019
70 Uruguay 75.85 2019
71 Romania 75.57 2019
72 Bosnia and Herzegovina 75.49 2019
73 Malaysia 74.25 2019
74 Kazakhstan 73.94 2019
75 Serbia 73.86 2019
76 Algeria 73.73 2019
77 Brazil 73.68 2019
78 Chile 72.42 2019
79 Greece 71.09 2019
80 Kyrgyz Republic 71.01 2019
81 St. Lucia 70.88 2019
82 Moldova 70.17 2019
83 Dominican Republic 69.90 2019
84 Botswana 69.47 2019
85 Panama 68.60 2019
86 Mexico 68.50 2019
87 Jamaica 67.09 2019
88 Belize 66.48 2019
89 Cabo Verde 66.11 2019
90 Namibia 65.30 2019
91 Venezuela 64.70 2019
92 Turkey 64.30 2019
93 Egypt 63.91 2019
94 Samoa 63.08 2019
95 Tajikistan 61.88 2019
96 Iraq 61.59 2019
97 Armenia 60.04 2019
98 Philippines 59.92 2019
99 Gabon 59.28 2019
100 Uzbekistan 58.22 2019
101 Eswatini 57.71 2019
102 Sri Lanka 56.86 2019
103 Iran 56.59 2019
104 Paraguay 54.52 2019
105 Mongolia 54.13 2019
106 Sudan 53.81 2019
107 Guatemala 53.00 2019
108 Lesotho 52.95 2019
109 El Salvador 52.74 2019
110 China 51.98 2019
111 Colombia 51.42 2019
112 Fiji 50.94 2019
113 Nicaragua 50.94 2019
114 Thailand 50.00 2019
115 Georgia 49.52 2019
116 Albania 44.90 2019
117 São Tomé and Principe 43.82 2019
118 Cambodia 43.22 2019
119 Indonesia 43.14 2019
120 Djibouti 42.51 2019
121 Honduras 42.06 2019
122 Ecuador 41.97 2019
123 Tonga 41.46 2019
124 Peru 39.86 2019
125 Vietnam 38.89 2019
126 Myanmar 38.55 2019
127 Morocco 36.99 2019
128 Bolivia 34.71 2019
129 Guyana 34.24 2019
130 Malawi 33.69 2019
131 Bangladesh 32.61 2019
132 Yemen 31.90 2019
133 Mauritania 31.18 2019
134 Equatorial Guinea 29.11 2019
135 Azerbaijan 27.34 2019
136 Senegal 26.86 2019
137 Pakistan 25.62 2019
138 Zimbabwe 24.08 2019
139 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 23.89 2019
140 Vanuatu 23.82 2019
141 Kenya 23.35 2019
142 Rwanda 21.94 2019
143 India 19.66 2019
144 Timor-Leste 19.09 2019
145 Ghana 17.64 2019
146 Comoros 17.17 2019
147 Angola 16.88 2019
148 Bhutan 16.21 2019
149 The Gambia 15.76 2019
150 Uganda 15.00 2019
151 Solomon Islands 14.57 2019
152 Côte d'Ivoire 14.47 2019
153 Lao PDR 14.23 2019
154 Cameroon 14.16 2019
155 Togo 13.97 2019
156 Nigeria 13.28 2019
157 Guinea-Bissau 12.76 2019
158 Eritrea 12.52 2019
159 Zambia 12.18 2019
160 Papua New Guinea 11.73 2019
161 Haiti 11.62 2019
162 Somalia 11.19 2019
163 Ethiopia 10.66 2019
164 Tanzania 10.36 2019
165 Liberia 9.98 2019
166 Burkina Faso 9.74 2019
167 Nepal 9.60 2019
168 Dem. Rep. Congo 8.67 2019
169 Madagascar 8.46 2019
170 Niger 8.34 2019
171 Congo 8.14 2019
172 Mozambique 5.86 2019
173 Sierra Leone 5.31 2019
174 Benin 5.05 2019
175 Mali 4.88 2019
176 Afghanistan 4.37 2019
177 Guinea 2.99 2019
178 Burundi 2.91 2019
179 Central African Republic 2.39 2019
180 Chad 1.05 2019

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Development Relevance: Breaking down employment information by status in employment provides a statistical basis for describing workers' behaviour and conditions of work, and for defining an individual's socio-economic group. A high proportion of wage and salaried workers in a country can signify advanced economic development. If the proportion of own-account workers (self-employed without hired employees) is sizeable, it may be an indication of a large agriculture sector and low growth in the formal economy. A high proportion of contributing family workers — generally unpaid, although compensation might come indirectly in the form of family income — may indicate weak development, little job growth, and often a large rural economy. Each status group faces different economic risks, and contributing family workers and own-account workers are the most vulnerable - and therefore the most likely to fall into poverty. They are the least likely to have formal work arrangements, are the least likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against economic shocks, and often are incapable of generating sufficient savings to offset these shocks.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. Due to differences in definitions and coverage across countries, there are limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Estimates of women in employment are not comparable internationally, reflecting that demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether women's activities are regarded as economic.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The indicator of status in employment distinguishes between two categories of the total employed. These are: (a) wage and salaried workers (also known as employees); and (b) self-employed workers. Self-employed group is broken down in the subcategories: self-employed workers with employees (employers), self-employed workers without employees (own-account workers), members of producers' cooperatives and contributing family workers (also known as unpaid family workers). Vulnerable employment refers to the sum of contributing family workers and own-account workers. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual