Employment to population ratio, 15+, male (%) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Qatar 94.96 2019
2 United Arab Emirates 91.80 2019
3 Niger 90.10 2019
4 Madagascar 88.01 2019
5 Oman 87.93 2019
6 Bahrain 87.20 2019
7 Cambodia 86.86 2019
8 Tanzania 85.87 2019
9 Ethiopia 85.42 2019
10 Zimbabwe 85.11 2019
11 Kuwait 84.42 2019
12 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 84.08 2019
13 Guatemala 83.13 2019
14 Nepal 83.11 2019
15 Peru 82.67 2019
16 Rwanda 82.66 2019
17 Eritrea 81.64 2019
18 Afghanistan 81.28 2019
19 Honduras 80.72 2019
20 Paraguay 80.69 2019
21 Vietnam 80.67 2019
22 Nicaragua 79.98 2019
23 Pakistan 79.50 2019
24 Lao PDR 79.30 2019
25 Ecuador 79.05 2019
26 Cameroon 78.92 2019
27 Solomon Islands 78.67 2019
28 Malawi 78.60 2019
29 Bangladesh 78.50 2019
30 Indonesia 78.18 2019
31 Panama 77.87 2019
32 Iceland 77.83 2019
33 Togo 77.73 2019
34 Saudi Arabia 77.17 2019
35 Bolivia 77.17 2019
36 Mozambique 77.05 2019
37 Belize 77.01 2019
38 India 76.79 2019
39 Chad 76.30 2019
40 Mexico 76.22 2019
41 Colombia 76.13 2019
42 Myanmar 76.09 2019
43 Burundi 76.01 2019
44 Vanuatu 75.84 2019
45 Guinea-Bissau 75.83 2019
46 Thailand 75.36 2019
47 Malaysia 75.15 2019
48 El Salvador 75.11 2019
49 Central African Republic 75.07 2019
50 Macao SAR, China 74.57 2019
51 Angola 74.48 2019
52 Dominican Republic 74.33 2019
53 Turkmenistan 74.17 2019
54 Mali 74.10 2019
55 Uganda 73.91 2019
56 Zambia 73.80 2019
57 Tonga 73.76 2019
58 Uzbekistan 73.61 2019
59 The Bahamas 73.55 2019
60 Singapore 73.46 2019
61 Bhutan 73.31 2019
62 Kazakhstan 73.27 2019
63 Fiji 73.13 2019
64 Philippines 72.33 2019
65 New Zealand 72.15 2019
66 Burkina Faso 72.04 2019
67 Benin 71.88 2019
68 China 71.74 2019
69 Kyrgyz Republic 70.99 2019
70 Korea 70.46 2019
71 Switzerland 70.39 2019
72 Venezuela 70.24 2019
73 Sri Lanka 69.75 2019
74 São Tomé and Principe 69.42 2019
75 Costa Rica 69.35 2019
76 Chile 69.13 2019
77 Uruguay 69.10 2019
78 Trinidad and Tobago 68.87 2019
79 Jamaica 68.79 2019
80 Japan 68.68 2019
81 Mauritius 68.07 2019
82 Egypt 67.65 2019
83 Lebanon 67.46 2019
84 Iraq 67.42 2019
85 Libya 67.15 2019
86 Botswana 66.99 2019
87 Russia 66.75 2019
88 Czech Republic 66.72 2019
89 Australia 66.67 2019
90 Ghana 66.65 2019
91 Georgia 66.55 2019
92 Brazil 66.44 2019
93 Israel 66.28 2019
94 Netherlands 66.21 2019
95 Azerbaijan 66.14 2019
96 Argentina 66.10 2019
97 Estonia 66.09 2019
98 Guyana 65.97 2019
99 Cuba 65.86 2019
100 Syrian Arab Republic 65.60 2019
101 Hong Kong SAR, China 65.45 2019
102 United States 65.25 2019
103 Brunei 65.10 2019
104 United Kingdom 65.05 2019
105 Canada 65.02 2019
106 Haiti 64.94 2019
107 Turkey 64.83 2019
108 Belarus 64.80 2019
109 Côte d'Ivoire 64.55 2019
110 Cabo Verde 64.52 2019
111 Congo 64.44 2019
112 Somalia 64.31 2019
113 Morocco 64.13 2019
114 Ireland 63.88 2019
115 Germany 63.84 2019
116 Djibouti 63.78 2019
117 Iran 63.78 2019
118 Norway 63.63 2019
119 Sudan 63.63 2019
120 The Gambia 63.37 2019
121 Poland 63.07 2019
122 Slovak Republic 62.96 2019
123 Malta 62.96 2019
124 Dem. Rep. Congo 62.87 2019
125 Denmark 62.83 2019
126 Barbados 62.82 2019
127 Sweden 62.77 2019
128 Hungary 62.74 2019
129 Austria 62.61 2019
130 Kenya 62.56 2019
131 Yemen 62.37 2019
132 Guinea 62.14 2019
133 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 62.14 2019
134 Mongolia 62.12 2019
135 Lithuania 61.99 2019
136 Cyprus 61.88 2019
137 St. Lucia 61.76 2019
138 Latvia 61.48 2019
139 Equatorial Guinea 61.39 2019
140 Suriname 60.99 2019
141 Romania 60.87 2019
142 Tunisia 60.54 2019
143 Portugal 60.26 2019
144 Algeria 60.17 2019
145 Lesotho 59.60 2019
146 New Caledonia 59.40 2019
147 Luxembourg 59.34 2019
148 Slovenia 58.92 2019
149 Bulgaria 58.34 2019
150 Armenia 57.88 2019
151 Mauritania 57.42 2019
152 Finland 57.40 2019
153 Liberia 56.27 2019
154 Nigeria 56.24 2019
155 Ukraine 56.01 2019
156 Albania 55.42 2019
157 Sierra Leone 55.33 2019
158 Jordan 55.33 2019
159 Senegal 55.15 2019
160 Belgium 54.92 2019
161 Spain 54.90 2019
162 France 54.41 2019
163 Serbia 54.06 2019
164 Croatia 53.82 2019
165 Italy 53.03 2019
166 Tajikistan 52.90 2019
167 North Macedonia 52.32 2019
168 Gabon 51.91 2019
169 Namibia 51.90 2019
170 Eswatini 51.87 2019
171 Greece 51.73 2019
172 Timor-Leste 51.11 2019
173 Comoros 49.02 2019
174 Montenegro 48.80 2019
175 Bosnia and Herzegovina 47.20 2019
176 South Africa 46.73 2019
177 Papua New Guinea 45.91 2019
178 Puerto Rico 44.44 2019
179 Moldova 43.42 2019
180 Samoa 35.55 2019

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: National estimates are also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.