Employment to population ratio, 15+, male (%) (national estimate) - Country Ranking - Africa

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Niger 90.30 2011
2 Madagascar 87.60 2015
3 Uganda 87.00 2013
4 Ethiopia 86.90 2013
5 Tanzania 86.70 2014
6 Zimbabwe 85.60 2014
7 Rwanda 82.50 2014
8 Zambia 80.80 2000
9 Mozambique 80.40 2015
10 Malawi 79.30 2013
11 Togo 77.90 2011
12 Ghana 77.40 2013
13 Burundi 76.40 2014
14 Mali 74.80 2016
15 Angola 74.40 2011
16 Benin 72.60 2011
16 Seychelles 72.60 2015
18 Burkina Faso 71.70 2014
19 Mauritius 70.70 2016
20 Kenya 69.50 1999
21 Côte d'Ivoire 69.30 2016
22 Morocco 65.70 2014
23 The Gambia 64.00 2012
24 Egypt 63.50 2016
25 Botswana 63.10 2013
26 Guinea 62.60 2002
27 Algeria 61.00 2016
28 Tunisia 60.30 2015
29 Liberia 59.40 2010
30 Mauritania 58.00 2012
31 Lesotho 57.40 2013
32 Nigeria 56.70 2013
33 Congo 56.30 2005
34 Sierra Leone 54.40 2014
35 Senegal 54.30 2015
36 Cameroon 53.50 2014
37 Namibia 51.60 2016
38 Swaziland 51.40 1995
39 Libya 51.30 2012
40 Gabon 49.80 2010
41 Comoros 48.50 2004
42 South Africa 47.00 2016
43 Djibouti 45.40 2002
44 São Tomé and Principe 37.00 2006

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.