Employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%) (national estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Qatar 99.30 2016
2 Oman 98.50 2016
3 Belarus 85.00 2015
4 Rwanda 82.70 2014
5 Madagascar 82.10 2015
6 Uganda 81.70 2013
7 Mozambique 79.10 2015
8 Burundi 78.90 2014
9 Tanzania 78.00 2014
10 Cambodia 77.40 2014
11 Iceland 77.30 2016
12 Cayman Islands 76.80 2015
13 Nepal 76.40 2014
14 Lao PDR 76.20 2010
15 Zimbabwe 76.10 2014
16 Togo 74.60 2011
17 Ethiopia 72.10 2013
18 Ghana 72.00 2013
19 Vietnam 70.70 2016
20 Angola 69.10 2011
21 Niger 68.10 2011
22 Malawi 67.90 2013
23 Benin 67.70 2011
24 Macao SAR, China 66.30 2016
25 Sweden 65.10 2016
26 Seychelles 63.80 2015
27 Zambia 62.20 2000
28 Kazakhstan 61.40 2008
29 Solomon Islands 61.00 2009
29 New Zealand 61.00 2016
29 Kenya 61.00 1999
32 Thailand 60.90 2016
33 Guinea 60.60 2002
34 Antigua and Barbuda 60.50 2001
35 Russia 60.10 2015
36 Switzerland 59.70 2016
37 Norway 59.60 2016
38 San Marino 59.40 2016
38 The Bahamas 59.40 2012
40 Kuwait 59.00 2011
40 Azerbaijan 59.00 2016
42 Singapore 57.70 2016
43 Peru 57.60 2016
44 Canada 57.50 2016
45 Vanuatu 57.10 2009
46 Greenland 57.00 2015
47 Barbados 56.50 2016
48 Israel 56.40 2016
49 Australia 55.80 2016
50 Denmark 55.50 2016
51 Cuba 55.30 2013
52 Netherlands 54.90 2016
53 United Kingdom 54.80 2016
54 St. Kitts and Nevis 54.30 1991
55 Bhutan 54.20 2015
55 Sierra Leone 54.20 2014
57 United States 54.10 2016
58 Paraguay 53.90 2016
59 Brunei 53.80 2014
60 Germany 53.60 2016
61 Liberia 53.40 2010
62 Hong Kong SAR, China 53.20 2015
63 Estonia 53.00 2016
64 Burkina Faso 52.90 2014
64 Georgia 52.90 2016
66 Bolivia 52.80 2015
66 Congo 52.80 2005
66 Austria 52.80 2016
69 Ecuador 52.40 2016
70 Malaysia 52.20 2016
71 Lithuania 52.00 2016
72 Liechtenstein 51.90 2016
73 Ukraine 51.70 2015
74 St. Lucia 51.60 2016
75 Colombia 51.50 2016
76 Myanmar 51.10 2015
77 Uruguay 51.00 2016
78 Latvia 50.40 2016
79 Finland 50.30 2016
80 Korea 50.20 2016
81 Luxembourg 50.00 2016
81 Nigeria 50.00 2013
83 Ireland 49.80 2016
83 Mongolia 49.80 2016
85 New Caledonia 49.70 2014
86 Czech Republic 49.40 2016
87 Mali 49.30 2016
88 Botswana 49.10 2013
89 Indonesia 49.00 2016
90 Cyprus 48.90 2016
90 Japan 48.90 2016
92 Jamaica 48.40 2016
93 Trinidad and Tobago 47.90 2015
93 Côte d'Ivoire 47.90 2016
95 Tajikistan 47.80 2004
96 Panama 47.60 2016
97 Slovenia 47.50 2016
97 Portugal 47.50 2016
99 Palau 47.20 2000
100 Papua New Guinea 47.10 2010
101 Slovak Republic 46.90 2016
102 Philippines 46.60 2016
103 France 46.50 2016
104 Venezuela 46.00 2015
105 Hungary 45.60 2016
106 Nicaragua 45.40 2014
107 Poland 45.30 2016
108 Brazil 44.90 2016
109 Chile 44.70 2016
109 Belize 44.70 2016
109 El Salvador 44.70 2016
112 Bulgaria 44.30 2016
113 Belgium 44.20 2016
114 The Gambia 44.10 2012
114 Kyrgyz Republic 44.10 2016
116 Argentina 43.70 2014
117 Armenia 43.20 2016
117 Dominican Republic 43.20 2016
119 Honduras 42.80 2016
119 Tuvalu 42.80 2002
121 Romania 42.20 2016
121 Suriname 42.20 2015
123 Bahrain 42.00 2015
124 Mexico 41.70 2016
124 Namibia 41.70 2016
124 Lesotho 41.70 2013
124 Spain 41.70 2016
128 Malta 40.90 2016
129 Dominica 40.80 2001
130 Mauritius 40.40 2016
131 Cameroon 40.30 2014
132 Montenegro 39.40 2016
133 Croatia 39.20 2016
133 Monaco 39.20 2016
133 Albania 39.20 2015
136 Moldova 39.00 2016
137 Costa Rica 38.90 2016
138 Guatemala 38.70 2016
139 Serbia 38.10 2016
140 Fiji 37.80 2014
141 Uzbekistan 37.60 2007
142 United Arab Emirates 37.50 2009
143 Swaziland 36.60 1995
144 Grenada 36.40 1988
145 Italy 35.30 2016
146 Kiribati 34.40 2010
147 South Africa 33.80 2016
148 Sri Lanka 33.40 2016
149 Bangladesh 33.20 2016
150 Macedonia 32.70 2016
151 Greece 32.40 2016
152 Senegal 32.00 2015
153 Tonga 31.70 2003
154 Djibouti 31.40 2002
155 Comoros 30.90 2004
156 Guyana 29.20 2002
157 Puerto Rico 28.90 2015
158 Gabon 28.50 2010
159 Haiti 28.00 2003
159 Turkey 28.00 2016
161 Libya 25.30 2012
162 Mauritania 25.00 2012
163 Pakistan 22.70 2015
164 Morocco 22.60 2014
165 India 22.50 2012
166 Samoa 21.90 2014
167 São Tomé and Principe 21.70 2006
168 Bosnia and Herzegovina 20.60 2016
169 Tunisia 20.30 2015
170 Timor-Leste 19.10 2013
171 Lebanon 19.00 2007
172 Egypt 17.60 2016
173 Afghanistan 15.50 2011
174 Saudi Arabia 15.40 2016
175 Algeria 13.80 2016
176 Iran 12.90 2016
177 Iraq 11.70 2004
178 Syrian Arab Republic 10.10 2010
179 Jordan 10.00 2014
180 Yemen 4.50 2014

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.