Employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%) (national estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Employment is defined as persons of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period (i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour) or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in December 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Solomon Islands 83.30 2013
2 Madagascar 82.08 2015
3 Burundi 78.92 2017
4 Tanzania 77.97 2014
5 Cayman Islands 76.77 2015
6 Zimbabwe 76.09 2014
7 Iceland 75.94 2018
8 Mozambique 75.28 2015
9 Cambodia 75.27 2016
10 Ethiopia 72.11 2013
11 Liberia 70.45 2016
12 Vietnam 69.72 2018
13 Kenya 69.36 2016
14 Benin 67.71 2011
15 Macao SAR, China 66.33 2016
16 Sweden 66.32 2018
17 Uzbekistan 66.00 2017
18 Cameroon 64.49 2014
19 Seychelles 64.30 2018
20 Belarus 63.90 2018
21 Chad 63.40 1993
22 New Zealand 62.75 2018
23 Niger 62.70 2014
24 St. Kitts and Nevis 61.67 2001
25 Bolivia 61.49 2018
26 Kazakhstan 61.38 2008
27 Guinea 60.58 2002
28 Antigua and Barbuda 60.47 2001
29 Dem. Rep. Congo 60.27 2012
30 Togo 60.19 2015
31 Switzerland 59.70 2018
32 Norway 59.57 2018
33 San Marino 59.45 2016
34 The Bahamas 59.42 2012
35 Azerbaijan 59.40 2018
36 Thailand 59.21 2018
37 Canada 57.94 2018
38 Singapore 57.76 2018
39 Qatar 57.62 2018
40 Peru 57.58 2018
41 Timor-Leste 57.53 2016
42 Israel 57.43 2018
43 Australia 57.28 2018
44 Vanuatu 57.09 2009
45 Greenland 57.00 2015
46 Netherlands 56.76 2018
47 Barbados 56.49 2016
48 United Kingdom 55.74 2018
49 Denmark 55.42 2018
50 Cuba 55.30 2013
51 Paraguay 54.99 2018
52 United States 54.89 2018
53 Palau 54.59 2014
54 Estonia 54.34 2018
55 Germany 54.32 2018
56 Bhutan 54.18 2015
57 Sierra Leone 54.16 2014
58 Lithuania 53.47 2018
59 Austria 53.31 2018
60 Russia 53.19 2018
61 Hong Kong SAR, China 53.11 2016
62 Ghana 52.89 2017
63 Ireland 52.85 2018
64 Burkina Faso 52.84 2014
65 Congo 52.82 2005
66 Malaysia 52.80 2017
67 Ukraine 52.53 2018
68 Luxembourg 52.52 2018
69 Cyprus 52.36 2018
70 Ecuador 52.24 2018
71 Latvia 52.23 2018
72 Liechtenstein 52.10 2017
73 Finland 51.81 2018
74 St. Lucia 51.57 2016
75 Japan 51.33 2018
76 Korea 51.31 2018
77 Czech Republic 51.30 2018
78 Jamaica 51.05 2018
79 Indonesia 50.93 2018
80 Brunei 50.87 2017
81 Mali 50.79 2018
82 Slovenia 50.69 2018
83 Portugal 50.43 2018
84 Uruguay 50.32 2018
85 Colombia 50.29 2018
86 New Caledonia 49.72 2014
87 Mongolia 49.64 2018
88 United Arab Emirates 49.61 2018
89 Georgia 49.34 2018
90 Botswana 49.11 2013
91 Panama 48.82 2018
92 Slovak Republic 48.60 2018
93 Trinidad and Tobago 48.03 2016
94 Myanmar 47.97 2018
95 Malta 47.85 2018
96 Honduras 47.10 2018
97 Papua New Guinea 47.07 2010
98 Kuwait 46.98 2016
99 Bulgaria 46.93 2018
100 France 46.93 2018
101 Belgium 46.77 2018
102 Hungary 46.75 2018
103 Venezuela 46.61 2013
104 Poland 46.60 2018
105 Nauru 46.07 2013
106 Brazil 45.44 2018
107 Nigeria 45.41 2016
108 Nicaragua 45.35 2014
109 Haiti 45.32 2012
110 Chile 45.32 2018
111 Dominican Republic 45.23 2017
112 Namibia 45.11 2018
113 Côte d'Ivoire 44.38 2017
114 Argentina 44.32 2018
115 Philippines 44.18 2018
116 The Gambia 44.08 2012
117 Romania 44.04 2018
118 Belize 44.02 2017
119 El Salvador 43.79 2018
120 Armenia 43.54 2017
121 Albania 43.50 2017
122 Spain 43.50 2018
123 Grenada 43.30 1998
124 Cabo Verde 43.09 2018
125 Suriname 42.19 2015
126 Bahrain 42.01 2015
127 Mexico 41.97 2018
128 Kyrgyz Republic 41.92 2018
129 Lesotho 41.73 2013
130 Croatia 41.26 2018
131 Mauritius 40.89 2018
132 Montenegro 40.82 2018
133 Dominica 40.80 2001
134 Costa Rica 40.70 2018
135 Serbia 40.29 2018
136 Moldova 39.99 2018
137 Uganda 39.94 2017
138 Monaco 39.22 2016
139 Guatemala 37.83 2017
140 Guyana 36.95 2017
141 Rwanda 36.65 2018
142 Fiji 36.41 2016
143 Italy 36.26 2018
144 Eswatini 35.63 2016
145 North Macedonia 34.49 2018
146 South Africa 34.36 2018
147 Sri Lanka 34.30 2017
148 Angola 34.11 2014
149 Bangladesh 33.92 2017
150 Lao PDR 33.68 2017
151 Greece 33.58 2018
152 Oman 33.03 2018
153 Tuvalu 32.12 2016
154 Senegal 31.98 2015
155 Malawi 31.90 2017
156 Kiribati 31.68 2015
157 Tonga 31.67 2003
158 Tajikistan 30.86 2016
159 Comoros 29.59 2014
160 Turkey 29.43 2018
161 Puerto Rico 28.90 2015
162 Gabon 28.53 2010
163 Bosnia and Herzegovina 26.63 2019
164 Libya 25.30 2012
165 Samoa 24.76 2017
166 Mauritania 24.56 2012
167 Zambia 24.27 2017
168 Nepal 22.88 2017
169 São Tomé and Principe 21.71 2006
170 Morocco 21.19 2016
171 Pakistan 20.86 2018
172 Tunisia 20.25 2015
173 India 19.73 2018
174 Sudan 19.62 2011
175 Lebanon 18.98 2007
176 Afghanistan 18.20 2017
177 Saudi Arabia 16.97 2018
178 Egypt 16.92 2017
179 Iran 14.23 2018
180 Algeria 13.46 2017
181 Syrian Arab Republic 10.10 2010
182 Jordan 10.00 2014
183 Iraq 7.72 2017
184 Yemen 4.46 2014

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Development Relevance: Four targets were added to the UN Millennium Declaration at the 2005 World Summit High-Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly. One was full and productive employment and decent work for all, which is seen as the main route for people to escape poverty. Employment to population ratio is a key measure to monitor whether a country is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. And it continues to be a priority in the Sustainable Development Goal of promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on employment by status are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. The labor force survey is the most comprehensive source for internationally comparable employment, but there are still some limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Comparability of employment ratios across countries is affected by variations in definitions of employment and population. The biggest difference results from the age range used to define labor force activity. The population base for employment ratios can also vary. Most countries use the resident, non-institutionalized population of working age living in private households, which excludes members of the armed forces and individuals residing in mental, penal, or other types of institutions. But some countries include members of the armed forces in the population base of their employment ratio while excluding them from employment data. The reference period of a census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people's status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others data are recorded without reference to any period. Employment ratios tend to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave. This indicator also has a gender bias because women who do not consider their work employment or who are not perceived as working tend to be undercounted. This bias has different effects across countries and reflects demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The employment to population ratio indicates how efficiently an economy provides jobs for people who want to work. A high ratio means that a large proportion of the population is employed. But a lower employment to population ratio can be seen as a positive sign, especially for young people, if it is caused by an increase in their education.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The series for ILO estimates is also available in the WDI database. Caution should be used when comparing ILO estimates with national estimates.