Employers, female (% of female employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced), and, in this capacity, have engaged, on a continuous basis, one or more persons to work for them as employee(s).

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in September 2019.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Azerbaijan 10.91 2019
2 Kenya 8.96 2019
3 Honduras 5.77 2019
4 Montenegro 5.49 2019
5 Samoa 5.20 2019
6 Greece 4.82 2019
7 Comoros 4.79 2019
8 Belize 4.70 2019
9 Ghana 4.53 2019
10 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.17 2019
11 New Zealand 4.14 2019
12 Australia 4.12 2019
13 Italy 3.72 2019
14 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.70 2019
15 St. Lucia 3.54 2019
16 Spain 3.37 2019
17 Switzerland 3.36 2019
18 Croatia 3.33 2019
19 Iraq 3.26 2019
20 Brazil 3.24 2019
21 Namibia 3.19 2019
22 Tunisia 3.17 2019
23 Latvia 3.13 2019
24 Cabo Verde 3.04 2019
25 Paraguay 3.03 2019
26 Sierra Leone 3.01 2019
27 Portugal 2.97 2019
28 El Salvador 2.94 2019
29 Trinidad and Tobago 2.88 2019
30 Hungary 2.88 2019
31 Singapore 2.81 2019
32 Chile 2.70 2019
33 South Africa 2.69 2019
34 Uruguay 2.69 2019
35 Nicaragua 2.68 2019
36 North Macedonia 2.65 2019
37 Austria 2.64 2019
38 New Caledonia 2.62 2019
39 Angola 2.61 2019
40 Canada 2.60 2019
41 Uganda 2.56 2019
42 Philippines 2.54 2019
43 Poland 2.53 2019
44 Colombia 2.50 2019
45 Estonia 2.48 2019
46 Argentina 2.48 2019
47 Belgium 2.48 2019
48 Jamaica 2.45 2019
49 Peru 2.42 2019
50 Mexico 2.41 2019
51 Slovenia 2.41 2019
52 Germany 2.40 2019
53 Costa Rica 2.36 2019
54 Cameroon 2.35 2019
55 Netherlands 2.32 2019
56 Yemen 2.31 2019
57 France 2.27 2019
58 Bulgaria 2.25 2019
59 Guatemala 2.24 2019
60 Botswana 2.23 2019
61 Ireland 2.21 2019
62 Bahrain 2.19 2019
63 Egypt 2.14 2019
64 Serbia 2.12 2019
65 Luxembourg 2.12 2019
66 Guyana 2.04 2019
67 Madagascar 2.03 2019
68 Dominican Republic 1.99 2019
69 The Bahamas 1.98 2019
70 Brunei 1.96 2019
71 Finland 1.95 2019
72 Algeria 1.94 2019
73 Slovak Republic 1.92 2019
74 Iceland 1.89 2019
75 Bolivia 1.88 2019
76 Malta 1.87 2019
77 United States 1.86 2019
78 Liberia 1.84 2019
79 China 1.83 2019
80 Indonesia 1.83 2019
81 Lebanon 1.77 2019
82 Nigeria 1.74 2019
83 Tanzania 1.69 2019
84 Mauritius 1.69 2019
85 Ecuador 1.66 2019
86 Timor-Leste 1.64 2019
87 Israel 1.63 2019
88 Venezuela 1.61 2019
89 Czech Republic 1.59 2019
90 Jordan 1.58 2019
91 Eswatini 1.56 2019
92 Djibouti 1.53 2019
93 São Tomé and Principe 1.53 2019
94 Panama 1.53 2019
95 Macao SAR, China 1.52 2019
96 Denmark 1.51 2019
97 Sweden 1.50 2019
98 Malaysia 1.49 2019
99 Thailand 1.49 2019
100 Mozambique 1.46 2019
101 Sudan 1.44 2019
102 United Kingdom 1.42 2019
103 United Arab Emirates 1.42 2019
104 Myanmar 1.39 2019
105 Lithuania 1.37 2019
106 Iran 1.37 2019
107 Gabon 1.33 2019
107 Turkey 1.33 2019
109 Kyrgyz Republic 1.32 2019
110 The Gambia 1.28 2019
111 Georgia 1.25 2019
112 Puerto Rico 1.24 2019
113 Côte d'Ivoire 1.16 2019
114 Vietnam 1.15 2019
115 Hong Kong SAR, China 1.12 2019
116 Turkmenistan 1.12 2019
117 Dem. Rep. Congo 1.09 2019
118 Sri Lanka 1.09 2019
119 Papua New Guinea 1.08 2019
120 Vanuatu 1.08 2019
121 Syrian Arab Republic 1.07 2019
122 Equatorial Guinea 1.04 2019
123 Albania 1.03 2019
124 Uzbekistan 1.01 2019
125 Guinea 1.01 2019
126 Norway 0.98 2019
127 Haiti 0.96 2019
128 Fiji 0.93 2019
129 Togo 0.91 2019
130 Tonga 0.91 2019
131 Russia 0.87 2019
132 Mauritania 0.86 2019
133 Kazakhstan 0.80 2019
134 Somalia 0.80 2019
135 Morocco 0.80 2019
136 Cyprus 0.80 2019
137 Japan 0.79 2019
138 Oman 0.77 2019
139 Malawi 0.74 2019
140 Cuba 0.71 2019
141 Korea 0.71 2019
142 Suriname 0.70 2019
143 Benin 0.70 2019
144 Ukraine 0.68 2019
145 Solomon Islands 0.68 2019
146 Mongolia 0.68 2019
147 Bangladesh 0.66 2019
148 Barbados 0.64 2019
149 Romania 0.63 2019
150 Eritrea 0.62 2019
151 Guinea-Bissau 0.61 2019
152 Lesotho 0.60 2019
153 Kuwait 0.58 2019
154 India 0.56 2019
155 Congo 0.54 2019
156 Belarus 0.54 2019
157 Niger 0.50 2019
158 Senegal 0.43 2019
159 Central African Republic 0.43 2019
160 Armenia 0.41 2019
161 Libya 0.41 2019
162 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 0.38 2019
163 Nepal 0.36 2019
164 Qatar 0.35 2019
165 Cambodia 0.33 2019
165 Burkina Faso 0.33 2019
167 Zimbabwe 0.31 2019
168 Lao PDR 0.28 2019
169 Moldova 0.28 2019
170 Zambia 0.25 2019
171 Saudi Arabia 0.21 2019
172 Ethiopia 0.18 2019
173 Afghanistan 0.15 2019
174 Mali 0.14 2019
175 Chad 0.13 2019
176 Tajikistan 0.11 2019
177 Pakistan 0.11 2019
178 Bhutan 0.06 2019
179 Rwanda 0.06 2019
180 Burundi 0.04 2019

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Development Relevance: Breaking down employment information by status in employment provides a statistical basis for describing workers' behaviour and conditions of work, and for defining an individual's socio-economic group. A high proportion of wage and salaried workers in a country can signify advanced economic development. If the proportion of own-account workers (self-employed without hired employees) is sizeable, it may be an indication of a large agriculture sector and low growth in the formal economy. A high proportion of contributing family workers — generally unpaid, although compensation might come indirectly in the form of family income — may indicate weak development, little job growth, and often a large rural economy. Each status group faces different economic risks, and contributing family workers and own-account workers are the most vulnerable - and therefore the most likely to fall into poverty. They are the least likely to have formal work arrangements, are the least likely to have social protection and safety nets to guard against economic shocks, and often are incapable of generating sufficient savings to offset these shocks.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data are drawn from labor force surveys and household surveys, supplemented by official estimates and censuses for a small group of countries. Due to differences in definitions and coverage across countries, there are limitations for comparing data across countries and over time even within a country. Estimates of women in employment are not comparable internationally, reflecting that demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether women's activities are regarded as economic.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The indicator of status in employment distinguishes between two categories of the total employed. These are: (a) wage and salaried workers (also known as employees); and (b) self-employed workers. Self-employed group is broken down in the subcategories: self-employed workers with employees (employers), self-employed workers without employees (own-account workers), members of producers' cooperatives and contributing family workers (also known as unpaid family workers). Vulnerable employment refers to the sum of contributing family workers and own-account workers. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual