Employment in agriculture, female (% of female employment) (modeled ILO estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4).

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database. Data retrieved in November 2017.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Burundi 95.80 2017
2 Rwanda 86.70 2017
3 Mozambique 85.30 2017
4 Somalia 84.20 2017
5 Lao PDR 83.20 2017
6 Nepal 83.10 2017
7 Burkina Faso 82.80 2017
8 Central African Republic 82.40 2017
9 Chad 82.10 2017
10 Afghanistan 81.90 2017
11 Malawi 80.60 2017
12 Guinea 77.60 2017
13 Madagascar 76.40 2017
14 Comoros 76.00 2017
14 Uganda 76.00 2017
16 Papua New Guinea 75.90 2017
17 Dem. Rep. Congo 75.60 2017
18 Kenya 75.00 2017
19 Côte d'Ivoire 74.50 2017
20 Tajikistan 72.90 2017
21 Guinea-Bissau 72.30 2017
22 Zimbabwe 71.40 2017
23 Sierra Leone 71.00 2017
24 Togo 70.50 2017
25 Eritrea 69.80 2017
25 Tanzania 69.80 2017
27 Pakistan 68.90 2017
28 Cameroon 67.20 2017
29 Zambia 66.70 2017
30 Bhutan 64.50 2017
31 Vanuatu 63.70 2017
32 Timor-Leste 61.90 2017
33 Ethiopia 61.70 2017
34 Mauritania 61.60 2017
35 India 59.90 2017
36 Bangladesh 58.70 2017
37 Senegal 56.70 2017
38 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 56.30 2017
39 Niger 53.60 2017
40 Mali 51.20 2017
41 Solomon Islands 50.80 2017
42 Albania 48.20 2017
43 Congo 47.50 2017
44 Liberia 46.40 2017
45 Yemen 45.70 2017
46 Georgia 45.50 2017
47 Iraq 43.70 2017
48 Swaziland 43.60 2017
49 Azerbaijan 42.50 2017
49 Vietnam 42.50 2017
51 The Gambia 42.40 2017
52 Egypt 41.10 2017
53 Cambodia 40.40 2017
54 Armenia 39.60 2017
55 Cabo Verde 39.50 2017
56 Ghana 38.30 2017
57 Equatorial Guinea 37.80 2017
58 Haiti 35.10 2017
59 Benin 33.90 2017
60 Morocco 32.40 2017
61 Thailand 31.70 2017
62 Kyrgyz Republic 31.60 2017
63 China 31.30 2017
64 Myanmar 30.90 2017
65 Syrian Arab Republic 30.80 2017
66 Sri Lanka 30.70 2017
67 Indonesia 30.10 2017
68 Turkey 29.10 2017
69 Lesotho 27.50 2017
69 Libya 27.50 2017
69 Namibia 27.50 2017
72 Mongolia 27.40 2017
73 Uzbekistan 27.20 2017
74 Gabon 27.00 2017
75 Bolivia 25.50 2017
76 Romania 25.20 2017
77 Moldova 24.90 2017
78 Sudan 23.20 2017
79 Fiji 22.40 2017
80 Ecuador 20.50 2017
80 Iran 20.50 2017
82 Botswana 20.40 2017
83 Peru 19.60 2017
84 Philippines 17.60 2017
85 Djibouti 17.20 2017
86 Kazakhstan 17.10 2017
87 Bosnia and Herzegovina 17.00 2017
88 Turkmenistan 16.80 2017
89 Serbia 16.20 2017
90 São Tomé and Principe 15.40 2017
91 Nigeria 14.50 2017
92 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 13.50 2017
93 Ukraine 13.20 2017
94 Paraguay 13.10 2017
95 Macedonia 12.90 2017
96 Greece 12.20 2017
97 Brazil 10.90 2017
98 St. Lucia 9.70 2017
98 Poland 9.70 2017
100 Guatemala 9.20 2017
101 Angola 8.70 2017
102 Slovenia 8.50 2017
103 Montenegro 8.00 2017
104 Nicaragua 7.90 2017
105 Jamaica 7.80 2017
106 Croatia 7.70 2017
107 Malaysia 7.50 2017
107 Guyana 7.50 2017
109 Panama 7.40 2017
110 Honduras 7.20 2017
111 Lithuania 6.40 2017
112 Belarus 5.80 2017
112 Portugal 5.80 2017
114 Mauritius 5.70 2017
115 Russia 5.20 2017
116 Korea 5.10 2017
116 Tonga 5.10 2017
118 Cuba 5.00 2017
118 Belize 5.00 2017
120 Chile 4.90 2017
121 Venezuela 4.50 2017
122 Austria 4.40 2017
122 Algeria 4.40 2017
124 Bulgaria 4.20 2017
124 Latvia 4.20 2017
124 El Salvador 4.20 2017
124 Colombia 4.20 2017
128 Uruguay 4.00 2017
129 Mexico 3.70 2017
129 New Zealand 3.70 2017
131 South Africa 3.60 2017
132 Costa Rica 3.50 2017
133 Japan 3.30 2017
134 Samoa 3.20 2017
135 Switzerland 2.60 2017
136 Hungary 2.50 2017
136 Tunisia 2.50 2017
136 Dominican Republic 2.50 2017
139 Finland 2.30 2017
139 Italy 2.30 2017
141 Estonia 2.20 2017
142 New Caledonia 2.00 2017
142 Spain 2.00 2017
144 Cyprus 1.90 2017
144 Iceland 1.90 2017
146 Australia 1.70 2017
146 Suriname 1.70 2017
148 France 1.60 2017
148 Slovak Republic 1.60 2017
150 Czech Republic 1.50 2017
150 Barbados 1.50 2017
152 Netherlands 1.40 2017
153 Trinidad and Tobago 1.30 2017
153 Ireland 1.30 2017
155 Canada 1.20 2017
156 Germany 1.00 2017
156 Norway 1.00 2017
158 Denmark 0.90 2017
158 Sweden 0.90 2017
158 The Bahamas 0.90 2017
158 Jordan 0.90 2017
162 United States 0.80 2017
162 Luxembourg 0.80 2017
162 Belgium 0.80 2017
165 United Kingdom 0.70 2017
166 Israel 0.60 2017
167 Brunei 0.50 2017
167 Saudi Arabia 0.50 2017
169 Oman 0.40 2017
169 Malta 0.40 2017
171 Argentina 0.30 2017
171 Macao SAR, China 0.30 2017
173 Singapore 0.20 2017
173 Qatar 0.20 2017
173 Lebanon 0.20 2017
176 Puerto Rico 0.10 2017
176 United Arab Emirates 0.10 2017
176 Kuwait 0.10 2017
176 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.10 2017
180 Bahrain 0.00 2017

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Development Relevance: Sectoral information is particularly useful in identifying broad shifts in employment and stages of development. In the textbook case of economic development, labour flows from agriculture and other labour-intensive primary activities to industry and finally to the services sector; in the process, workers migrate from rural to urban areas. The breakdown of the indicator by sex allows for analysis of gender segregation of employment by specific sector. Women may be drawn into lower-paying service activities that allow for more flexible work schedules thus making it easier to balance family responsibilities with work life. Segregation of women in certain sectors may also result from cultural attitudes that prevent them from entering industrial employment. Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus the economy's ability to adapt to change. This segregation is particularly harmful for women, who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job growth is centered in service occupations, where women have better chances, as has been the recent experience in many countries.

Limitations and Exceptions: There are many differences in how countries define and measure employment status, particularly members of the armed forces, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Where members of the armed forces are included, they are allocated to the service sector, causing that sector to be somewhat overstated relative to the service sector in economies where they are excluded. Where data are obtained from establishment surveys, data cover only employees; thus self-employed and unpaid family workers are excluded. In such cases the employment share of the agricultural sector is severely underreported. Caution should be also used where the data refer only to urban areas, which record little or no agricultural work. Moreover, the age group and area covered could differ by country or change over time within a country. For detailed information, consult the original source. Countries also take different approaches to the treatment of unemployed people. In most countries unemployed people with previous job experience are classified according to their last job. But in some countries the unemployed and people seeking their first job are not classifiable by economic activity. Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be fully comparable across countries. The ILO reports data by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2, revision 3, or revision 4. Broad classification such as employment by agriculture, industry, and services may obscure fundamental shifts within countries' industrial patterns. A slight majority of countries report economic activity according to the ISIC revision 3 instead of revision 2 or revision 4. The use of one classification or the other should not have a significant impact on the information for the employment of the three broad sectorsdata.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies economic activity using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities, revision 2 (1968), revision 3 (1990), and revision 4 (2008). Because this classification is based on where work is performed (industry) rather than type of work performed (occupation), all of an enterprise's employees are classified under the same industry, regardless of their trade or occupation. The categories should sum to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differences are due to workers who are not classified by economic activity. The series is part of the ILO estimates and is harmonized to ensure comparability across countries and over time by accounting for differences in data source, scope of coverage, methodology, and other country-specific factors. The estimates are based mainly on nationally representative labor force surveys, with other sources (population censuses and nationally reported estimates) used only when no survey data are available.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Data up to 2016 are estimates while data from 2017 are projections.