Poverty headcount ratio at $5.50 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) - Country Ranking

Definition: Poverty headcount ratio at $5.50 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $5.50 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For mor

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

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Rank Country Value Year
1 Dem. Rep. Congo 97.70 2012
2 Madagascar 97.30 2012
3 Burundi 96.80 2013
4 Malawi 96.70 2016
5 Uzbekistan 96.40 2003
6 Mali 94.90 2009
7 Sierra Leone 94.70 2011
8 Timor-Leste 94.00 2014
9 Guinea-Bissau 93.40 2010
9 Niger 93.40 2014
11 Tanzania 93.10 2011
12 Central African Republic 92.80 2008
13 Turkmenistan 92.50 1998
14 Burkina Faso 92.30 2014
14 São Tomé and Principe 92.30 2010
14 Guinea 92.30 2012
17 Liberia 92.20 2016
18 Nigeria 92.10 2009
19 Mozambique 91.80 2014
20 Rwanda 91.60 2016
21 Benin 90.60 2015
22 Ethiopia 90.20 2015
23 Togo 90.10 2015
24 Lesotho 89.90 2010
25 Senegal 88.10 2011
26 Uganda 87.80 2016
27 Zambia 87.20 2015
28 Papua New Guinea 86.90 2009
29 India 86.80 2011
30 Kenya 86.50 2015
31 Chad 86.20 2011
32 Lao PDR 85.00 2012
33 Solomon Islands 84.70 2013
34 Bangladesh 84.50 2016
35 Nepal 83.00 2010
36 Congo 82.40 2011
37 Côte d'Ivoire 82.30 2015
38 Eswatini 82.00 2009
39 Yemen 81.60 2014
40 Angola 79.40 2008
41 Haiti 78.90 2012
42 Pakistan 75.40 2015
43 Zimbabwe 74.00 2011
44 Sudan 73.20 2009
45 The Gambia 72.50 2015
46 Vanuatu 72.30 2010
47 Djibouti 70.60 2017
48 Kiribati 69.40 2006
49 Cameroon 68.90 2014
50 Myanmar 67.20 2015
51 Kyrgyz Republic 66.40 2017
52 Comoros 62.70 2013
53 Egypt 61.90 2015
54 Botswana 60.40 2015
55 Mauritania 58.80 2014
56 Indonesia 58.70 2017
57 Iraq 57.30 2012
58 South Africa 57.10 2014
59 Ghana 56.90 2016
60 Guyana 56.40 1998
61 Suriname 55.70 1999
62 Philippines 55.10 2015
63 Tajikistan 54.20 2015
64 Cabo Verde 53.10 2007
65 Belize 53.00 1999
66 Honduras 52.60 2017
67 Syrian Arab Republic 50.40 2004
68 Namibia 50.10 2015
69 Armenia 50.00 2017
70 Guatemala 48.80 2014
71 Fiji 48.60 2013
72 Tuvalu 46.70 2010
73 Georgia 43.60 2017
74 Sri Lanka 40.40 2016
75 Albania 39.10 2012
76 Bhutan 38.60 2017
77 Venezuela 35.60 2006
78 Nicaragua 34.80 2014
79 Samoa 33.90 2013
80 Trinidad and Tobago 32.90 1992
81 Gabon 32.20 2017
82 Mongolia 32.00 2016
83 Morocco 31.30 2013
84 Jamaica 29.70 2004
85 Algeria 29.20 2011
86 Vietnam 29.00 2016
86 El Salvador 29.00 2017
88 Colombia 27.60 2017
89 Tonga 27.50 2015
90 China 27.20 2015
91 Mexico 25.70 2016
91 Romania 25.70 2015
93 Bolivia 24.70 2017
94 Peru 23.90 2017
95 Serbia 23.70 2015
96 Ecuador 23.20 2017
97 North Macedonia 23.10 2015
98 Brazil 21.00 2017
99 St. Lucia 20.30 2016
100 Dominican Republic 19.90 2016
101 Paraguay 18.60 2017
102 Tunisia 18.30 2015
103 Jordan 18.10 2010
104 Mauritius 17.20 2012
105 Moldova 16.30 2017
106 Panama 14.10 2017
107 Iran 11.60 2016
108 Turkey 9.90 2016
109 Costa Rica 9.70 2017
110 Bulgaria 8.70 2014
111 Kazakhstan 8.60 2017
112 Azerbaijan 8.20 2005
113 Thailand 7.80 2017
114 Argentina 7.70 2017
115 Greece 6.70 2015
116 Seychelles 6.60 2013
117 Ukraine 6.40 2016
117 Chile 6.40 2017
119 Croatia 5.50 2015
120 Montenegro 4.80 2014
121 Lithuania 4.20 2015
122 Latvia 4.00 2015
123 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.90 2011
124 Italy 3.50 2015
125 Spain 3.20 2015
126 Slovak Republic 3.00 2015
126 Portugal 3.00 2015
128 Uruguay 2.90 2017
129 Hungary 2.70 2015
129 Malaysia 2.70 2015
129 Poland 2.70 2015
129 Russia 2.70 2015
129 Israel 2.70 2016
134 Estonia 2.00 2015
134 United States 2.00 2016
136 Lebanon 1.90 2011
137 Korea 1.20 2012
137 Australia 1.20 2014
139 Canada 1.00 2013
139 Sweden 1.00 2015
139 Japan 1.00 2008
142 Austria 0.90 2015
143 Belarus 0.80 2017
144 Ireland 0.70 2015
144 United Kingdom 0.70 2015
146 Netherlands 0.50 2015
146 Denmark 0.50 2015
146 Luxembourg 0.50 2015
149 Czech Republic 0.40 2015
150 Germany 0.25 2015
151 Belgium 0.20 2015
151 Norway 0.20 2015
151 Finland 0.20 2015
151 Cyprus 0.20 2015
151 Iceland 0.20 2014
151 France 0.20 2015
151 Slovenia 0.20 2015
151 Malta 0.20 2015
159 Switzerland 0.00 2015

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Development Relevance: The World Bank Group is committed to reducing extreme poverty to 3 percent or less, globally, by 2030. Monitoring poverty is important on the global development agenda as well as on the national development agenda of many countries. The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries for World Development Report 1990: Poverty (World Bank 1990) using household survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, Datt, and van de Walle 1991). Since then there has been considerable expansion in the number of countries that field household income and expenditure surveys. The World Bank's Development Research Group maintains a database that is updated annually as new survey data become available (and thus may contain more recent data or revisions) and conducts a major reassessment of progress against poverty every year. PovcalNet is an interactive computational tool that allows users to replicate these internationally comparable $1.90, $3.20, $5.50 a day global, regional and country-level poverty estimates and to compute poverty measures for custom country groupings and for different poverty lines. The Poverty and Equity Data portal provides access to the database and user-friendly dashboards with graphs and interactive maps that visualize trends in key poverty and inequality indicators for different regions and countries. The country dashboards display trends in poverty measures based on the national poverty lines alongside the internationally comparable estimates, produced from and consistent with PovcalNet.

Limitations and Exceptions: Despite progress in the last decade, the challenges of measuring poverty remain. The timeliness, frequency, quality, and comparability of household surveys need to increase substantially, particularly in the poorest countries. The availability and quality of poverty monitoring data remains low in small states, countries with fragile situations, and low-income countries and even some middle-income countries. The low frequency and lack of comparability of the data available in some countries create uncertainty over the magnitude of poverty reduction. Besides the frequency and timeliness of survey data, other data quality issues arise in measuring household living standards. The surveys ask detailed questions on sources of income and how it was spent, which must be carefully recorded by trained personnel. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption comes closer to the notion of living standards. And income can vary over time even if living standards do not. But consumption data are not always available: the latest estimates reported here use consumption data for about two-thirds of countries. However, even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of differences in timing or in the quality and training of enumerators. Comparisons of countries at different levels of development also pose a potential problem because of differences in the relative importance of the consumption of nonmarket goods. The local market value of all consumption in kind (including own production, particularly important in underdeveloped rural economies) should be included in total consumption expenditure but may not be. Most survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from own production, but valuation methods vary.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: International comparisons of poverty estimates entail both conceptual and practical problems. Countries have different definitions of poverty, and consistent comparisons across countries can be difficult. Local poverty lines tend to have higher purchasing power in rich countries, where more generous standards are used, than in poor countries. Since World Development Report 1990, the World Bank has aimed to apply a common standard in measuring extreme poverty, anchored to what poverty means in the world's poorest countries. The welfare of people living in different countries can be measured on a common scale by adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of currencies. The commonly used $1 a day standard, measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted to local currency using purchasing power parities (PPPs), was chosen for World Development Report 1990 because it was typical of the poverty lines in low-income countries at the time. As differences in the cost of living across the world evolve, the international poverty line has to be periodically updated using new PPP price data to reflect these changes. The last change was in October 2015, when we adopted $1.90 as the international poverty line using the 2011 PPP. Prior to that, the 2008 update set the international poverty line at $1.25 using the 2005 PPP. Poverty measures based on international poverty lines attempt to hold the real value of the poverty line constant across countries, as is done when making comparisons over time. The $3.20 poverty line is derived from typical national poverty lines in countries classified as Lower Middle Income. The $5.50 poverty line is derived from typical national poverty lines in countries classified as Upper Middle Income. Early editions of World Development Indicators used PPPs from the Penn World Tables to convert values in local currency to equivalent purchasing power measured in U.S dollars. Later editions used 1993, 2005, and 2011 consumption PPP estimates produced by the World Bank. The current extreme poverty line is set at $1.90 a day in 2011 PPP terms, which represents the mean of the poverty lines found in 15 of the poorest countries ranked by per capita consumption. The new poverty line maintains the same standard for extreme poverty - the poverty line typical of the poorest countries in the world - but updates it using the latest information on the cost of living in developing countries. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions. The statistics reported here are based on consumption data or, when unavailable, on income surveys. Analysis of some 20 countries for which income and consumption expenditure data were both available from the same surveys found income to yield a higher mean than consumption but also higher inequality. When poverty measures based on consumption and income were compared, the two effects roughly cancelled each other out: there was no significant statistical difference.

Unit of Measure: %

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand six hundred household surveys across 164 countries in six regions and 25 other high income countries (indu