Poverty gap at $5.50 a day (2011 PPP) (%) - Country Ranking

Definition: Poverty gap at $5.50 a day (2011 PPP) is the mean shortfall in income or consumption from the poverty line $5.50 a day (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For mor

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Dem. Rep. Congo 73.70 2012
2 Madagascar 73.50 2012
3 Burundi 70.50 2013
4 Malawi 69.70 2010
5 Mozambique 68.90 2008
6 Uzbekistan 67.10 2003
7 Central African Republic 66.60 2008
8 Guinea-Bissau 66.40 2010
9 Lesotho 63.20 2010
10 Rwanda 62.00 2013
11 Zambia 60.00 2015
12 Sierra Leone 59.60 2011
12 Nigeria 59.60 2009
14 Benin 59.20 2015
15 Mali 58.10 2009
16 Tanzania 57.80 2011
17 Timor-Leste 56.80 2007
18 Niger 56.30 2014
19 Togo 56.20 2015
20 Burkina Faso 54.90 2014
21 Liberia 53.80 2014
22 The Gambia 53.50 2003
23 Turkmenistan 53.10 1998
24 Ethiopia 52.20 2010
25 Guinea 51.70 2012
26 São Tomé and Principe 50.70 2010
27 Chad 50.60 2011
28 Senegal 50.50 2011
29 Papua New Guinea 50.20 2009
30 Swaziland 49.80 2009
31 Uganda 48.90 2012
32 St. Lucia 48.70 1995
33 Congo 47.60 2011
34 Kenya 45.90 2005
35 Solomon Islands 43.50 2013
35 India 43.50 2011
37 Côte d'Ivoire 43.30 2015
38 Lao PDR 42.90 2012
38 Angola 42.90 2008
40 Bangladesh 42.50 2010
41 Haiti 39.80 2012
42 Yemen 39.30 2014
43 Nepal 38.50 2010
44 Djibouti 36.20 2013
45 Zimbabwe 36.10 2011
46 Namibia 35.50 2009
47 Cameroon 35.30 2014
48 Suriname 34.30 1999
49 Sudan 32.60 2009
50 Pakistan 32.00 2013
51 Vanuatu 31.70 2010
52 Comoros 30.40 2013
53 Kiribati 29.10 2006
54 Botswana 28.70 2009
55 Ghana 28.20 2012
56 Honduras 27.90 2015
57 South Africa 27.80 2011
58 Philippines 26.60 2015
59 Myanmar 26.10 2015
60 Indonesia 25.10 2016
61 Guyana 25.00 1998
62 Belize 24.50 1999
63 Kyrgyz Republic 23.10 2015
64 Gabon 22.10 2005
65 Georgia 21.80 2015
66 Cabo Verde 21.50 2007
67 Mauritania 21.30 2014
68 Guatemala 21.20 2014
69 Tajikistan 18.80 2015
70 Egypt 18.50 2015
71 Iraq 18.40 2012
72 Sri Lanka 16.30 2012
73 Morocco 16.20 2006
74 Tuvalu 16.10 2010
75 Syrian Arab Republic 15.80 2004
76 Fiji 15.30 2013
77 Armenia 14.80 2015
77 Venezuela 14.80 2006
79 Bhutan 14.40 2012
80 Nicaragua 12.90 2014
81 Colombia 11.90 2015
81 Bolivia 11.90 2015
83 Trinidad and Tobago 11.80 1992
83 Mexico 11.80 2014
85 China 11.70 2013
86 Vietnam 11.50 2014
87 Ecuador 11.30 2015
88 Samoa 10.70 2008
89 Albania 10.30 2012
90 El Salvador 9.90 2015
91 Macedonia 9.80 2015
92 Tunisia 9.30 2010
93 Jamaica 9.20 2004
93 Tonga 9.20 2009
95 Brazil 8.90 2015
96 Peru 8.30 2015
97 Dominican Republic 7.20 2015
98 Paraguay 6.90 2015
99 Algeria 6.70 2011
100 Panama 6.20 2015
101 Romania 6.00 2013
102 Mongolia 4.50 2014
103 Argentina 4.40 2014
103 Mauritius 4.40 2012
105 Azerbaijan 4.30 2008
106 Costa Rica 4.00 2015
107 Jordan 3.80 2010
108 Malaysia 3.70 2009
109 Bulgaria 3.40 2014
110 Chile 3.30 2015
111 Moldova 3.10 2015
112 Turkey 2.90 2014
113 Iran 2.80 2014
113 Greece 2.80 2014
115 Seychelles 2.40 2013
116 Lithuania 2.30 2014
116 Thailand 2.30 2013
118 Croatia 2.10 2014
119 Serbia 2.00 2013
120 Uruguay 1.70 2015
121 Italy 1.60 2014
122 Estonia 1.40 2014
122 Portugal 1.40 2014
122 Israel 1.40 2012
122 Slovak Republic 1.40 2014
122 Ukraine 1.40 2015
122 Spain 1.40 2014
128 United States 1.30 2013
129 Hungary 1.20 2014
129 Kazakhstan 1.20 2015
131 Montenegro 1.10 2014
132 Latvia 1.00 2014
133 Poland 0.80 2014
133 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.80 2011
135 Canada 0.50 2013
135 Japan 0.50 2008
135 Australia 0.50 2010
135 Ireland 0.50 2014
135 Russia 0.50 2015
135 Korea 0.50 2012
141 Sweden 0.40 2014
142 Austria 0.30 2014
142 Lebanon 0.30 2011
142 Denmark 0.30 2014
142 United Kingdom 0.30 2014
146 Luxembourg 0.20 2014
147 Czech Republic 0.10 2014
147 Iceland 0.10 2014
147 Belgium 0.10 2014
147 Netherlands 0.10 2014
147 Norway 0.10 2014
147 Cyprus 0.10 2014
147 Belarus 0.10 2015
147 Finland 0.10 2014
155 Switzerland 0.00 2013
155 Slovenia 0.00 2014
155 France 0.00 2014
155 Germany 0.00 2013

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Development Relevance: The World Bank Group is committed to reducing extreme poverty to 3 percent or less, globally, by 2030. Monitoring poverty is important on the global development agenda as well as on the national development agenda of many countries. The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries for World Development Report 1990: Poverty (World Bank 1990) using household survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, Datt, and van de Walle 1991). Since then there has been considerable expansion in the number of countries that field household income and expenditure surveys. The World Bank's Development Research Group maintains a database that is updated annually as new survey data become available (and thus may contain more recent data or revisions) and conducts a major reassessment of progress against poverty every year. PovcalNet is an interactive computational tool that allows users to replicate these internationally comparable $1.90 and $3.10 a day global, regional and country-level poverty estimates and to compute poverty measures for custom country groupings and for different poverty lines. The Poverty and Equity Data portal provides access to the database and user-friendly dashboards with graphs and interactive maps that visualize trends in key poverty and inequality indicators for different regions and countries. The country dashboards display trends in poverty measures based on the national poverty lines alongside the internationally comparable estimates, produced from and consistent with PovcalNet.

Limitations and Exceptions: Despite progress in the last decade, the challenges of measuring poverty remain. The timeliness, frequency, quality, and comparability of household surveys need to increase substantially, particularly in the poorest countries. The availability and quality of poverty monitoring data remains low in small states, countries with fragile situations, and low-income countries and even some middle-income countries. The low frequency and lack of comparability of the data available in some countries create uncertainty over the magnitude of poverty reduction. Besides the frequency and timeliness of survey data, other data quality issues arise in measuring household living standards. The surveys ask detailed questions on sources of income and how it was spent, which must be carefully recorded by trained personnel. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption comes closer to the notion of living standards. And income can vary over time even if living standards do not. But consumption data are not always available: the latest estimates reported here use consumption data for about two-thirds of countries. However, even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of differences in timing or in the quality and training of enumerators. Comparisons of countries at different levels of development also pose a potential problem because of differences in the relative importance of the consumption of nonmarket goods. The local market value of all consumption in kind (including own production, particularly important in underdeveloped rural economies) should be included in total consumption expenditure but may not be. Most survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from own production, but valuation methods vary.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: International comparisons of poverty estimates entail both conceptual and practical problems. Countries have different definitions of poverty, and consistent comparisons across countries can be difficult. Local poverty lines tend to have higher purchasing power in rich countries, where more generous standards are used, than in poor countries. Since World Development Report 1990, the World Bank has aimed to apply a common standard in measuring extreme poverty, anchored to what poverty means in the world's poorest countries. The welfare of people living in different countries can be measured on a common scale by adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of currencies. The commonly used $1 a day standard, measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted to local currency using purchasing power parities (PPPs), was chosen for World Development Report 1990 because it was typical of the poverty lines in low-income countries at the time. As differences in the cost of living across the world evolve, the international poverty line has to be periodically updated using new PPP price data to reflect these changes. The last change was in October 2015, when we adopted $1.90 as the international poverty line using the 2011 PPP. Prior to that, the 2008 update set the international poverty line at $1.25 using the 2005 PPP. Poverty measures based on international poverty lines attempt to hold the real value of the poverty line constant across countries, as is done when making comparisons over time. The $3.20 poverty line is derived from typical national poverty lines in countries classified as Lower Middle Income. The $5.50 poverty line is derived from typical national poverty lines in countries classified as Upper Middle Income. Early editions of World Development Indicators used PPPs from the Penn World Tables to convert values in local currency to equivalent purchasing power measured in U.S dollars. Later editions used 1993, 2005, and 2011 consumption PPP estimates produced by the World Bank. The current extreme poverty line is set at $1.90 a day in 2011 PPP terms, which represents the mean of the poverty lines found in 15 of the poorest countries ranked by per capita consumption. The new poverty line maintains the same standard for extreme poverty - the poverty line typical of the poorest countries in the world - but updates it using the latest information on the cost of living in developing countries. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions. The statistics reported here are based on consumption data or, when unavailable, on income surveys. Analysis of some 20 countries for which income and consumption expenditure data were both available from the same surveys found income to yield a higher mean than consumption but also higher inequality. When poverty measures based on consumption and income were compared, the two effects roughly cancelled each other out: there was no significant statistical difference.

Unit of Measure: %

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand six hundred household surveys across 164 countries in six regions and 25 other high income countries (indu