GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldban

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 South Africa 63.40 2011
2 Namibia 61.00 2009
3 Botswana 60.50 2009
4 Suriname 57.60 1999
5 Zambia 57.10 2015
6 Central African Republic 56.20 2008
7 Lesotho 54.20 2010
8 Belize 53.30 1999
9 Swaziland 51.50 2009
10 Brazil 51.30 2015
11 Colombia 51.10 2015
12 Panama 51.00 2015
13 Guinea-Bissau 50.70 2010
14 Rwanda 50.40 2013
15 Honduras 50.10 2015
16 Congo 48.90 2011
17 Guatemala 48.70 2014
18 Kenya 48.50 2005
19 Mexico 48.20 2014
19 Costa Rica 48.20 2015
21 Paraguay 48.00 2015
22 Benin 47.80 2015
23 Chile 47.70 2015
24 The Gambia 47.30 2003
25 Cabo Verde 47.20 2007
26 Venezuela 46.90 2006
27 Seychelles 46.80 2013
28 Nicaragua 46.60 2014
29 Ecuador 46.50 2015
29 Cameroon 46.50 2014
31 Malaysia 46.30 2009
32 Malawi 46.10 2010
33 Bolivia 45.80 2015
34 Mozambique 45.60 2008
35 Jamaica 45.50 2004
36 Comoros 45.00 2013
37 Dominican Republic 44.90 2015
38 Guyana 44.50 1998
39 Peru 44.30 2015
40 Djibouti 44.10 2013
41 Chad 43.30 2011
42 Zimbabwe 43.20 2011
43 Togo 43.00 2015
43 Nigeria 43.00 2009
45 Madagascar 42.70 2012
45 Angola 42.70 2008
45 Argentina 42.70 2014
48 St. Lucia 42.60 1995
49 Ghana 42.20 2012
49 Gabon 42.20 2005
49 China 42.20 2012
52 Dem. Rep. Congo 42.10 2012
53 Samoa 42.00 2008
54 Papua New Guinea 41.80 2009
55 Uruguay 41.70 2015
55 Côte d'Ivoire 41.70 2015
57 Israel 41.40 2012
58 Turkey 41.20 2014
59 United States 41.00 2013
59 Uganda 41.00 2012
61 Haiti 40.90 2012
62 Turkmenistan 40.80 1998
62 El Salvador 40.80 2015
64 Morocco 40.70 2006
65 Senegal 40.30 2011
65 Trinidad and Tobago 40.30 1992
67 Philippines 40.10 2015
68 Indonesia 39.50 2013
69 Burundi 39.20 2013
69 Sri Lanka 39.20 2012
71 Tuvalu 39.10 2010
72 Iran 38.80 2014
72 Bhutan 38.80 2012
74 Georgia 38.50 2015
75 Myanmar 38.10 2015
76 Thailand 37.80 2013
76 Tanzania 37.80 2011
78 Lithuania 37.70 2014
78 Russia 37.70 2015
80 Tonga 37.50 2009
81 Bulgaria 37.40 2014
82 Vanuatu 37.30 2010
83 Kiribati 37.00 2006
83 Solomon Islands 37.00 2013
85 Yemen 36.70 2014
86 Fiji 36.40 2013
86 Lao PDR 36.40 2012
88 Spain 36.00 2014
89 Greece 35.80 2014
89 Syrian Arab Republic 35.80 2004
89 Mauritius 35.80 2012
89 Tunisia 35.80 2010
93 Cyprus 35.60 2014
93 Macedonia 35.60 2015
93 Portugal 35.60 2014
96 Sudan 35.40 2009
97 Burkina Faso 35.30 2014
97 Uzbekistan 35.30 2003
99 India 35.20 2011
100 Latvia 35.10 2014
101 Vietnam 34.80 2014
102 Italy 34.70 2014
102 Australia 34.70 2010
104 Estonia 34.60 2014
105 United Kingdom 34.10 2014
106 Tajikistan 34.00 2015
106 Canada 34.00 2013
106 Niger 34.00 2014
106 Sierra Leone 34.00 2011
110 Bosnia and Herzegovina 33.80 2011
111 Jordan 33.70 2010
111 Guinea 33.70 2012
113 Liberia 33.20 2014
113 Ethiopia 33.20 2010
115 Mali 33.00 2009
116 Nepal 32.80 2010
117 Switzerland 32.50 2013
118 Mauritania 32.40 2014
118 Armenia 32.40 2015
120 France 32.30 2014
121 Croatia 32.20 2014
122 Japan 32.10 2008
122 Bangladesh 32.10 2010
122 Poland 32.10 2014
125 Mongolia 32.00 2014
126 Ireland 31.90 2014
126 Montenegro 31.90 2014
128 Egypt 31.80 2015
128 Lebanon 31.80 2011
128 Azerbaijan 31.80 2008
131 Korea 31.60 2012
132 Germany 31.40 2013
133 Luxembourg 31.20 2014
134 Hungary 30.90 2014
135 São Tomé and Principe 30.80 2010
136 Pakistan 30.70 2013
137 Austria 30.50 2014
138 Timor-Leste 30.30 2007
139 Iraq 29.50 2012
140 Serbia 29.10 2013
141 Albania 29.00 2012
141 Kyrgyz Republic 29.00 2015
143 Netherlands 28.60 2014
144 Denmark 28.50 2014
145 Belgium 28.10 2014
146 Algeria 27.60 2011
147 Romania 27.50 2013
148 Sweden 27.20 2014
149 Moldova 27.00 2015
150 Finland 26.80 2014
150 Norway 26.80 2014
152 Belarus 26.70 2015
153 Kazakhstan 26.50 2015
154 Slovak Republic 26.10 2014
155 Czech Republic 25.90 2014
156 Slovenia 25.70 2014
157 Iceland 25.60 2014
158 Ukraine 25.50 2015

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Limitations and Exceptions: Gini coefficients are not unique. It is possible for two different Lorenz curves to give rise to the same Gini coefficient. Furthermore it is possible for the Gini coefficient of a developing country to rise (due to increasing inequality of income) while the number of people in absolute poverty decreases. This is because the Gini coefficient measures relative, not absolute, wealth. Another limitation of the Gini coefficient is that it is not additive across groups, i.e. the total Gini of a society is not equal to the sum of the Gini's for its sub-groups. Thus, country-level Gini coefficients cannot be aggregated into regional or global Gini's, although a Gini coefficient can be computed for the aggregate. Because the underlying household surveys differ in methods and types of welfare measures collected, data are not strictly comparable across countries or even across years within a country. Two sources of non-comparability should be noted for distributions of income in particular. First, the surveys can differ in many respects, including whether they use income or consumption expenditure as the living standard indicator. The distribution of income is typically more unequal than the distribution of consumption. In addition, the definitions of income used differ more often among surveys. Consumption is usually a much better welfare indicator, particularly in developing countries. Second, households differ in size (number of members) and in the extent of income sharing among members. And individuals differ in age and consumption needs. Differences among countries in these respects may bias comparisons of distribution. World Bank staff have made an effort to ensure that the data are as comparable as possible. Wherever possible, consumption has been used rather than income. Income distribution and Gini indexes for high-income economies are calculated directly from the Luxembourg Income Study database, using an estimation method consistent with that applied for developing countries.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. The Gini index provides a convenient summary measure of the degree of inequality. Data on the distribution of income or consumption come from nationally representative household surveys. Where the original data from the household survey were available, they have been used to calculate the income or consumption shares by quintile. Otherwise, shares have been estimated from the best available grouped data. The distribution data have been adjusted for household size, providing a more consistent measure of per capita income or consumption. No adjustment has been made for spatial differences in cost of living within countries, because the data needed for such calculations are generally unavailable. For further details on the estimation method for low- and middle-income economies, see Ravallion and Chen (1996). Survey year is the year in which the underlying household survey data were collected or, when the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the year in which most of the data were collected.

Unit of Measure: %

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand six hundred household surveys across 164 countries in six regions and 25 other high income countries (indu